To develop fire protection system in effective manner engineer services are hired in form of consulting, research and development, education, manufacturing and enforcement of facilities management. These engineers basically conduct fire research to known the exact effect of the innovative product or initiative on the fire system. During their research emphasis is made on four areas such as to involve risk analysis in fire protection design to obtain desired result. To conduct research in those areas where the emission of heat is higher and to translate ideas into model to implement it to get the desired result.
They also give more emphasis on the understanding of human behavior to predict better on reaction of people to fire cues, smokes and alarms and also on availability of data to obtain more accurate figure, more cost effective designs, increased reliability and a better understanding of financial losses and the cost of improvement in fire protection system. The above research helps the engineers to make evolutionary improvements and to create advance developments in the fire protection system as the situation required.
Historical and Evolutionary Improvements in Water based Fire Protection Systems Fire protection system that is incomplete, inadequate or absent or full of deficiencies is not capable of to control fire in best manner. For e. g. sprinkler system installed improperly or lacked water, fire alarms and smoke detractor not in proper condition, improper fire doors etc. These above problems can be solved by installing sprinklers throughout the complex, by adopting fire safety emergency escape route.
As a result of this safety of members, staffs, visitors, buildings and life can be possible. It is recommended that proper investigation of all the machinery and fire protection surveys reports to be made on regular interval to ascertain the deficiency involve in the Water based fire protection system and thereby to remove them. The National Fire Protection Association is the sole national organization which develops and lay down standards, measures and steps mandatory required for the fire protection system for the protection of individuals and property from the dangers of fire.
This Association helps the fire protection system to remain update with current technology and aware those with the recent improvements required therein. It is made compulsory provision to incorporate audit committee in every fire protection system to check whether the requirements of fire codes and regulations have been properly complied to ensure safety. It is also recommended to hire the service of capita police under the fire protection system to easily control over fire at anywhere.
Their 24 hours on site presence play an important role in to control fire of uncontrolled nature. In recent years the need to prevent loss of aircraft damaged by guns and missiles is that to develop fire extinguishing system in the aircraft. In ships, on the other hand to cope with accidental fires, it is necessary to develop more effective fire extinguishing systems. The sprinkler, which was introduced more than 100 years ago, has developed incrementally, and advancements have been made more evolutionary and revolutionary.
But the recent sprinklers which have been developed are designed to effectively fight fires in specific fire hazards and to make more efficient use of water. New sprinklers have been developed in the last several years for storage fire risk. The other technology which is emerge in recent years is the introduction of mist technology which is intermingled with work conducted on water spraying systems and sprinkler system. This system was earlier involve in fire control but did not prove to be so much effective due to the variety of pressures, agents, atomization techniques and nozzle configuration.
So for its proper implementation need is require to conduct full scale fire testing for each application for which water systems could be applied. The main problem lies with the installation of this system in control of fire is that it is very costly to design, develop, and evaluate. There are three main advantages of water mist system over conventional fire protection systems. The very first advantage is the ability of water mist systems to perform fire extinguishment, suppression or control with far less water than the traditional system.
The other advantage is its ability ton effectively cool the protected space. It has been generally seen that during or after water discharge the temperature of the product as well as environment reduced significantly. The last but not the least advantage is its ability to provide smoke scrubbing system which helps to efficiently remove the smoke from the environment that will lead to more clear surrounding. According to USFA (United States Fire Administration) analysis, United states and Canada are most prone to fire death among all industrialized nations.
Till date, the fire problem in America was as severe as it was 30 years ago (Principal Findings and Recommendations). However, as a result of recent improvements fires are down by 21 percent per capita, there is reduction in deaths and injuries by 27 percent, adjustment of dollar loss is 28 percent. In 1975, when USFA was established, the approximate fire death were 12000 and the objective was to reduce deaths by 50 percent within 25 years. The goal was achieved by increased use of smoke alarms; there is significant decrease in the number of fires and death cases over past two decades.
The greater use of sprinkler system, better code enforcement of fire and smoke-resistant construction methods, and newer fire rated construction materials has led to noticeable control over the fire death rates. Instead of making so much progress in the past decade, the United States is still having one of the highest per-capita fire death rates in the world. Here, the question arises, whether changes in the new building codes will set the United States back by a decade? Will over reliance on sprinklers and elimination of fire rated construction eliminate many of the gains that have been achieved over the past 30 years?
This has led to a strong controversy on the subject of balancing active (sprinklers) and passive (fire and smoke-resistant construction) elements in fire protection, building design, and construction interests over the past several years. As a result of required changes in construction, as defined in the new International Building Code (IBC) 2000 and the new National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 5000 building codes, this issue has came into existence. How Codes have Changed and have been Implemented given these Improvements
Over the past 30 years, the three national model building codes are incorporated with the increased use of sprinklers while the requirements for fire-resistant components such as walls, floors beams, trusses, girders, dampers, doors, cables and columns, concrete, fireproofing, fire duct wrap, firestop systems, fire rated glazing, and fire rated wall and ceiling boards are reduced. These components and materials are very useful in controlling the spread of fire, limit the damage to a burning building and surrounding structures, and allow sufficient time for occupants to escape and firefighters to do their work before the structure collapses.
The two types of building codes are ¢ IBC 2000 It consists of three regional codes- BOCAI (Building Officials and Code Administrators International), SBCCI (Southern Building Code Congress International) and ICBO (International Conference of Building Officials). These codes are merged to produce a new code which represents an overall reduction in standards levels and thus in life-safety effectiveness. Significant differences in the fire protection effectiveness among areas of United States have been recorded due to difference in building code requirements, demographics, and public awareness of fire and smoke hazards.
For example, less restrictive areas such as South and North east suffered greater loss of life as compared to regions such as California, where higher standards have been in force. These code differences has led to estimation of allowable height and area tables for building spaces and required mix of active and fire-resistant construction. ¢ IBC/NFPA 5000 The introduction of this code not only comprises to less restrictive provisions but also relax certain requirements: Earlier, BOCA National Building Code allowed only certain buildings with sprinklers to be constructed with no area restrictions or fire-ratings till one storey height.
However, under IBC and NFPA 5000, the buildings can be two storeys high and need not be fire rated. The SBCCI Standard Building Code proposed that firewalls should have four-hour fire-resistance rating. With the incorporation of new codes, the fire ratings have reduced to two or three hour as per building occupancy and use. The ICBO Uniform Building Code allowed buildings to have sprinklers either to increase the allowable height or allowable area of building, but not both simultaneously. However, IBC and NFPA 5000 allowed both without increase in fire-resistant construction.
The revised code has reduced the cost of new commercial construction by 2 to 3 percent because of significant increase to height and area tables and reductions in fire-resistant construction requirements. Increased reliance on sprinkler system is responsible for less-restrictive construction regulations and fire-resistant construction requirements. Projections for Future Trends and Expectations: Number of projections and planning is made in the coming years to increase the efficiency of the system which most suitable to future situation.
The mission of water based fire protection industry is to preserve and enhance the quality of life through professional, highly trained, well equipped organization which delivers quality life suppression, prevention, education, emergency medical service, explosive ordnance disposal, rescue and other services. A noticeable increase in fire stations and apparatus is made at those places were chances of fire is more. The numbers of trained staff have increase to provide quick customer service.
Currently fire stations are staffed with three personnel; a captain, engineer and a fire fighter who provides immediate life support. Providing training to as many as people and to include it as a subject in the course study to create the interest. The fire station were remodeled which are three person engine company. The priorities of fire protection system is to quickly response at emergency times, to provide training to personnel, to prevent fire, public education and development of public relations, to prepare pre-incident planning and to provide all the needed facilities of apparatus and equipment maintenance.
A new system to collect data related to fire incident is constituted called as National Fire operating System (NFRS). In recent years more emphasis is given on the development of fire fighting strategy tactics, on aggressive interior attack, emphasis on primary and secondary rescue operations to increase the efficiency of each individual. The new program is also set up to measure the level of fitness of employees and to ensure that employees can perform their duties in healthy and safe manner, and to reduce job related injures.
A rescue list will be available to common people to utilize the service in case of need and to provide service beyond normal expectations. Numbers of safety surveys are conducted at business places, education centers, service organizations and other public places to minimize the risk of fire and in return to provide a safe place to live.
Reffered to sites: 1. http://www. pbcsd. org/reports/reviews/WaterSytemReview102706. pdf/Memorandum. 2. http://www. sfpe. org/upload/sfpe_research_agenda.pdf/The society of fire protection engineers. 3. http://www. facilitiesnet. com/ms/article. asp? id=4270&keywords=fire%20protection,%20fire%20inspections. Keeping Fire Protection Systems from Going Bad: Developing a Maintenance Program By Lynn Proctor windle 4. http://www. fireengineering. com/articles/article_display. html? id=196217 CLARIFYING THE ISSUE OF FIRE PROTECTION BALANCE Richard R. Licht BY RICHARD R. LICHT 5. http://www. tahoefire. com/StrategicPlan2004. pdf PLAN REVIEW PROCESS