Disadvantage Costly, adds nothing to productions during training period. Apprenticeship Training :-This method of training is meant to give the trainee sufficient knowledge and skill in those trades and crafts in which a long period of training is required for gaining complete proficiency. Generally, the trainees work as apprentices under the direct supervision of experts for long periods of say, two to seven years. This programme consists of providing actual work experience in the actual job as well as imparting theoretical knowledge through class room lectures which may be arranged either in the plant or in the institution attached to the concern.
This method of training enables the trainees to become all-round craftsmen. But this method is very expensive and also there is no guarantee that a trained worker will continue to work in the same concern after the training is completed. Internship Training :- This method of training is generally provided to the skilled and technical personnel. The object of this type of training is to bring about a balance between theoretical and practical knowledge, under this method, students from a technical institution possessing only theoretical knowledge are sent to some business enterprise to gain practical work experience. Simultaneously, the employees of business enterprises are sent to technical institutions to gain the latest theoretical knowledge on a subject. Ex. B.E. (Prod.) 6 months in plant training
B.E. (Mech.)- 2 days in a week during final year
b] Training Methods for Managers :-
Executive talent is the most important asset which a company can posses. Although, it does not appear on the companys balance sheet, but it produces more important effects on the companys progress, its profit and the price of its stock than any other asset in its possession. The following are the various training methods for managers.
1] Observation Assignment :-
Under this method, the newly recruited executive called understudy is made an assistant to the current job holder. He learns by experience, observation and imitation. If decisions are discussed with him, he is informed on the policies and theories involved.
2] Position Rotation :-
Under this method, the trainee executive is rotated among different managerial jobs. This not only broaden and enriches his experience as a manager but also enables him to understand inter departmental relations and the need for co-ordination and co-operation among various departments.
3] Serving on Committees :-
Another important method of training on an executive is to make him serve on a committee. While serving on a committee, the executive comes to learn not only the various organizational problems, views of senior and experienced members, but also learns how a manger should adjust himself to the overall needs of the enterprise.
4] Assignment of special Projects :-
Sometimes, as a method of training some special project is assigned to a trainee executive. for example, he may be ask to develop a system of cost allocation in the production of certain goods for which an order has been received by the company. While working on such project, the trainee not only acquires knowledge about them, but also learns how to work with and relate to other people holding different views.
5] Conference and Seminars :-
Often an executive is deputed to attend a conference, seminar or workshop to receive a quick orientation in various areas of Management with which he might be unfamiliar. One advantage of this type of training is that all the participants coming from different organizations get an opportunity to pool their ideas and experience in attempting to solve mutual problems. The attitude is one of joint exploration. This encourages cross fertilization of ideas.
6] Case Study :-
A case is a written account seeking to describe an actual situation. A good case is the vehicle by which a chunk of realty is brought into the class room to be discussed over by the class and the instructor. Discussion on a case requires a capable instructor, who can evoke and guide intelligent discussion analysis, so that meaningful learning experiences occur. There is no right answer or simple explanation in the comprehensive case. The advantages of this method are more depth of thinking, more perception in a situation, greater respect for and consideration for the opinion of others.
7] Incident Method :-
This method was developed at M.I.T. by Paul and Pigors, as an outgrowth of dissatisfaction felt with the case method. In the usual case method the entire problem is presented to the students, whereas in the incident method only a brief incident is presented to provoke discussion in the class. The group then puts questions to the instructor to draw out of him the salient facts and additional information, needed to arrive at a reasonable solution or resolution of the case. This method draws the participants into discussion with greater emotional involvement. A unique advantage of this method over the case method is the procedure of obtaining information by questions, one that often must take place in actual business situations.
8] Role Playing :-
In this method, the instructor assigns parts taken from case materials to group members. The situation is usually one involving conflict between people. The role players attempt to act the parts as they would behave in a real life situation, working without a script or memorized lines and improvising as they play the parts. The development of empathy and sensitivity is one of the primary objectives of role playing. 9] Laboratory Training (or Sensitivity Training) (T group Training): This type of training is designed to increase the managers understanding of himself and of his own impact on others. The training takes the form of a group discussion, and through a leader trained in the technique is present, the group may decide on the subject of discussion or suggest changes in procedure. In the course of discussion, conflict, hostility, stress and frustration may be purposely generated for they later on become motivations for growth as well as food for learning. The laboratory training aims at achieving behavioural, effectiveness in transactions with ones environment,
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