Theme parks Essay

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School of Hotel & Tourism Management The Hong Kong Polytechnic University John Ap, Ph. D School of Hotel & Tourism Management The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Project Co-ordinator Mr. Tony Tse School of Hotel & Tourism Management The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Theme Parks and Attractions Copyright The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region All rights reserved. The copyright of this manual belongs to the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Commercial use is strictly prohibited. Offenders will be liable to legal responsibility.

Schools need not apply for permission to copy this manual in whole or in part for non-profit making educational or research purposes. All other uses should gain prior permission in writing from the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Requests should be directed to the: Education Bureau 13/F, Room 1319, Wu Chung House 213 Queens Road East, Wan Chai Hong Kong i Theme Parks and Attractions Acknowledgements We would like to express our gratitude to the following organizations for giving us the permission to reprint some of the pictures and /or providing us with information for completing the curriculum support package:

The Association of National Tourist Office Representatives in Hong Kong, ANTOR (HK) Centre for Food Safety, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department ii Theme Parks and Attractions Introduction A set of curriculum support package of tourism and hospitality learning and teaching materials is being developed by the Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section of Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau for the implementation of the senior secondary Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum in schools.

The curriculum support package is comprised of eight manuals, and they are developed to broaden students knowledge of the eight different units of the Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum. The content of this manual Theme Parks and Attractions, should enhance students understanding of the dynamic nature of the tourism and hospitality industry. In addition, the manual includes activities to deepen students understanding and help them to apply theories and concepts. Furthermore, students should be able to develop enquiry, problem-solving and decision-making skills through these activities.

All comments and suggestions related to this curriculum support package may be sent to: Chief Curriculum Development Officer (PSHE) Personal, Social and Humanities Education Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau 13/F, Room 1319, Wu Chung House 213 Queens Road East, Wan Chai Hong Kong April 2009 iii Theme Parks and Attractions Contents 1 Attractions and their characteristics 1 1. 1 2 Introduction and overview (Supply) General definitions 2 The relationship between attractions and destinations 4 Typology of attractions 5 1. 2 Other types of attraction (Classification) 20 1. 3.

Primary and secondary attractions (Scale) 23 Catchment area Visitor numbers 1. 4 24 25 Amusement and theme parks 26 Definitions Types of theme park 1. 5 26 27 The visitor attraction product 30 Tangibles Intangibles 30 Intangibility 31 Inseparability 31 Perishability 1. 6 30 31 32 Three levels of product Core 32 Tangible 33 Augmented 33 1. 7 Leading amusement and theme park attractions 34 1. 8 The visitor attraction market I Motivations (Demand) 37 1. 9 The visitor attraction market II Determinants 39 Personal determinants 39 External determinants 40 iv Theme Parks and Attractions Contents 1.

10 The visitor attraction market III Important features 41 Most important features Factors influencing decisions to visit a theme park 1. 11 41 41 The visitor attraction market IV Segmentation 42 Geographical Demographic 42 Psychographic 43 Behavioural 43 Others 2 42 43 The roles of attractions in a destination 44 2. 1 45 Impacts on a destination Types of impacts 2. 2 45 Development of attractions and theme parks I Introduction 48 Types of development Agents of development 48 Motivations for development 2. 3 48 49 Development of attractions and theme parks II Scale 52 Scale of development.

Time-scale of development 2. 4 52 52 Development of attractions and theme parks III Feasibility 53 The feasibility study Site feasibility 53 Market feasibility 54 Financial feasibility 2. 5 53 56 Development of attractions and theme parks IV Feasibility What we plan and design 57 57 v Theme Parks and Attractions Contents Why we plan and design 2. 6 57 Development of attractions and theme parks V Design objectives Types of objectives 58 58 Operations management 61 3. 1 3 62 Operations management I Introduction Scope of operations management.

3. 2 Operations management II Required skills and problem solving 62 64 Skills involved Problems and problem solving 64 Types of risk 3. 3 64 65 Operations management III Safety 66 Role of safety Safety considerations 3. 4 66 66 Operations management IV Crisis management 67 Crisis management Crisis management action 3. 5 67 67 Operations management V Customer service 69 Managing the visitor experience Disney-style SERVICE 4 69 70 Factors contributing to the success of attractions and theme parks 71 4. 1 72 Influencing factors I The organization and its resources The product 4. 2 72 73 76 Influencing factors II The market 76 The management.

77 vi Theme Parks and Attractions 1. Attractions and their characteristics 1 Theme Parks and Attractions 1. 1 Introduction and overview (Supply) General definitions Attractions are the most important elements of a tourist destination as they provide the main reason or motivation for tourists to visit a destination. There is a large variety of tourist attractions and some of these are shown in the following chart: Figure 1 Typology of attractions Source: Goeldner, Charles R, Ritchie, J. R. Brent, McIntosh, Robert W, Tourism Principles, Practices, 2 Theme Parks and Attractions.

In general, a visitor attraction tends to be an individual site in a clearly defined area that is publicly accessible. The attraction motivates large numbers of people to visit it, usually for leisure, for a short, limited period of time. Any feature of a destination which attracts visitors, including places, venues or activities, can be called an attraction. Attractions usually have the following characteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Set out to attract visitors, including locals and tourists, who are managed accordingly Provides pleasurable and enjoyable experiences for visitors to spend their leisure time.

Developed to make it attractive and inviting for the use and enjoyment of visitors Managed as an attraction to satisfy visitors Provides facilities and services to meet and cater to the needs of visitors May or may not charge a fee for admission 3 Theme Parks and Attractions The relationship between attractions and destinations Attractions are generally single unit, individual sites with easily defined geographical areas based on a single key feature. Destinations are usually larger areas that include many attractions with support services and infrastructure such as transportation networks and accommodation.

There is a strong link between attractions and destinations. On one hand, a major attraction makes a destination more appealing to tourists and can stimulate the development of other tourism sectors such as hotels, tour operators and catering, as well as the destination itself. Examples include the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. Very often, more secondary (ie second tier or lower level) attractions will be developed once the destination grows. On the other hand, a popular and well-known destination ensures the potential market for the attractions.

Destinations with high accessibility and clear market image are usually good locations to develop and build an attraction. Hong Kong is an example where Disney chose to locate their theme park close to the southern China market. 4 Theme Parks and Attractions Typology of attractions Tourists are more likely to visit destinations that possess a wide variety of interesting facilities and services which they can enjoy. We can often find different kinds of attractions in a destination providing visitors with different types of experience. Some of these attractions are natural while the others are man-made.

They can be broadly divided into four main types: ¢ ¢ ¢ Natural features Man-made buildings, structures and sites that were originally designed for a purpose other than attracting visitors Man-made buildings, structures and sites that are purpose-built to attract visitors and cater for their needs Special events Examples of each type of attractions are presented in Table 1. ¢ Table 1 The four categories of attractions Natural features ¢ Beaches ¢ Caves ¢ Forests ¢ Harbours ¢ Mountains ¢ Natural heritage sites ¢ Rivers and lakes ¢ Rock faces ¢ Wildlife flora and fauna Man-made, but not originally designed to attract visitors Man-made and purpose-built to attract visitors.

¢ Archaeological ¢ Amusement sites and parks ancient ¢ Art galleries monuments ¢ Casinos ¢ Cathedrals, ¢ Country parks churches and ¢ Craft centres temples ¢ Entertainment ¢ Cultural complexes heritage sites ¢ Exhibition ¢ Historic centres gardens ¢ Factory ¢ Industrial outlets archaeology sites ¢ Garden centres ¢ Stately homes and historic 5 Special events ¢ Arts festivals ¢ Fairs and expositions ¢ Historical anniversarie s ¢ Markets.

¢ Religious festivals and events ¢ Sporting events watching and Theme Parks and Attractions Natural features Man-made, but not Man-made and originally purpose-built to designed to attract attract visitors visitors houses ¢ Health spas ¢ Steam railways ¢ Heritage centres ¢ Reservoirs ¢ Leisure centres Special events participating ¢ Traditional customs and folklore events ¢ Marinas ¢ Museums ¢ Picnic grounds ¢ Safari parks ¢ Theme parks ¢ Waterfront developments ¢ Working farms open to the public Source: Adapted from Swarbrooke , J, The Development and Management of Visitor Attractions, 2nd ed, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005, p. 6 Natural features.

Physical features and natural scenery, collectively termed landscapes, are major attractions for tourists who love nature. With the growing concern about conservation, environmental protection, landforms, natural vegetation and wildlife, natural features provide valuable resources for the development of nature-based travel and/or eco-tourism. A landscape will be typically composed of three major geographical elements: ¢ ¢ ¢ The landform and geology The natural vegetation (flora) and the animals (fauna) which depend upon it The presence of man which may modify both landforms and vegetation 6 Theme Parks and Attractions.

Landforms are classified into seven main categories: ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ Hills Mountains Plains Plateaux Coastlines The water systems which drain the various landforms Geological determinants of landforms such as rivers, oceans and volcanic activity Natural vegetation and the animals On a world scale, natural vegetation changes from the equator to the polar regions and so do the animals. Nowadays, observation of natural vegetation and animals in their natural habitats is increasingly popular among tourists. For instance, many tourists go to the Amazon mainly to see and experience its rich rainforest and wildlife.

Presence of man Human activities such as agricultural and forestry practices have greatly modified much of the natural vegetation. Human interaction with the natural features of the land has created a variety of cultural landscapes across the world. These different landscapes are also key types of attraction. Table 2 Landforms as tourist attractions Type of landform Mountains and hills Examples Activities ¢ The Peak, Hong Kong SAR Peak climbing ¢ Lushan, Huangshan, China (????? ) Jungle walking ¢ Cameron Highlands, Malaysia Skiing ¢ Swiss Alps, Switzerland Sightseeing ¢ Banff National Park, Canada.

Photography ¢ Grand Canyon, USA 7 Theme Parks and Attractions Type of landform Examples Activities Hainan Island and Qingdao, China (?? ) Water sports, eg Coastlines Beaches ¢ Lagoons Reefs ¢ Phuket, Thailand Fishing Islands ¢ Great Barrier Reef, Australia Sailing Cliffs ¢ Maldives Sunbathing ¢ Hawaii, USA Swimming ¢ Caribbean Islands Scuba diving ¢ White Cliffs of Dover, England Snorkeling Water skiing Windsurfing Animal and whale watching River systems Lakes Yangtze River, Chang Jiang and the Three Gorges(?? ?? ), China Water sports, eg ??? ) rafting ¢ West Lake, Hangzhou, China Cruises ¢.

Xihu, Lake Taihu, China (? Sightseeing ¢ Waterfalls ¢ boating, Huangguoshu, China (?? fishing and ???? ) ¢ Lake Louise, Canada ¢ Lake Lucerne, Switzerland ¢ River Rhine, Germany ¢ Niagara Falls, Canada 8 Theme Parks and Attractions Type of landform Examples ¢ Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe Special natural phenomena ¢ Mount. Fuji, Japan Volcanoes ¢ Activities Geysers Sulphur pools Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA Hot springs ¢ ¢ Lake Taal, Philippines Caldera ¢ Spa bathing Rotarua, New Zealand Crater lake Sightseeing Changbaishan, Tianchi, China Special geological formations (????? ) ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢.

Karst (limestone) landscape in Guilin, China (?? ) Sightseeing Rock climbing Stone Forest in Kunming, China (?? ) Uluru (Ayers Rock), Australia Shale rock Ping Chau, Hong Kong SAR (?? ) Rock outcrops Lion Rock, Hong Kong SAR Man-made attractions that were not originally designed to attract visitors Attractions that were built to serve purposes other than attracting visitors may either be deliberately converted into an attraction (eg Western Market, Hong Kong SAR) or have spontaneously evolved into an attraction over time (eg Bauhinia Square, Wong Tai Sin Temple, Po Lin Monastery and The Big Buddha).

Some of the commonly visited attractions are: 9 Theme Parks and Attractions ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ Ancient monuments and historic buildings Archaeological sites Cathedrals and temples Cultural heritage sites Gardens Industrial heritage 10 Theme Parks and Attractions Ancient monuments and historic buildings The world has buildings that have long histories and are of architectural value which provide an attractive setting for sightseeing. Although some of these buildings continue to perform their original functions, some may have been converted into homes, shops, offices, even hotels.

Examples: ¢ ¢ ¢ The Old Supreme Court, Hong Kong SAR home of the Legislative Council Western Market, Hong Kong SAR converted to a specialised textile retail centre with restaurants Fullerton Hotel, Singapore converted former post office Archaeological sites People are interested in the study of the pre- or early history of mankind. Sites that are rich in archaeological value usually attract visitors from around the world. Examples are: ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ The Acropolis, Athens, Greece sacred rock outcrop which houses the Parthenon temple developed around the 5th century BC.

Angkor Wat, Siem Reap, Cambodia state temple and capital complex of the 12th century Khmer empire Terracotta Warriors, Xian, China tomb of the Emperor Qinshihuang (who reigned from 221-207BC) which houses thousands of life-sized terracotta statues of soldiers and horses Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb, Hong Kong SAR an early Han tomb that dates back about 2,000 years Cathedrals and temples Cathedrals and temples serve as places of worship and, over time, they may become attractions due to their size and importance in a particular destination. Examples include:

¢ ¢ ¢ Saint Peters Basilica, The Vatican one of the most sacred sites and the largest Catholic Church completed in the 15th century Westminster Abbey in London, UK Anglican Church built in 1065 which has served as a place of worship, the Coronation venue and also burial place for English monarchs Wong Tai Sing Temple Hong Kong SARs most famous Taoist temple 11 Theme Parks and Attractions Po Lin Monastery and the Big Buddha, Hong Kong SAR Buddhist monastery with the worlds largest outdoor sitting Buddha statue ¢ World Heritage sites.

UNESCO inscribes (ie certifies and lists) heritage sites of international significance. These sites may be either natural or cultural. Sites of cultural significance worthy of preservation and/or conservation are protected and managed for future generations. Once listed, such sites, which may hitherto be little known, become a magnet for tourists. In 2008 for example, China has 36 listed sites. Some examples of cultural heritage sites in the Asia region include: Macaus historic buildings Malacca, Malaysia ¢ ¢ The Great Wall The Forbidden City Lijiang Ancient Town.

¢ ¢ ¢ Gardens Some magnificent gardens were built to complement the buildings or serve as leisure facilities for the locals and tourists. They may be famous for their great landscape or for their special design and themes. Examples: ¢ Yu Yuan (Yu Mandarins Garden), Shanghai, China garden with Ming Dynasty characteristics and architectural style ¢ Classical Gardens of Suzhou Gardens, China this private garden of Zhouzheng, which is also known as the Humble Administrators Garden, was originally developed in the 11th 19th Century.

Today, it reflects. traditional Ming and Qing dynasty landscape architecture ¢ Gardens of the Palace of Versailles, France well-manicured horticultural gardens of the French Emperors palace developed in the late 1600s Industrial heritage A variety of industrial sites, mining sites, railways, docks, warehouses and manufacturing sites have also been converted into tourist attractions. Examples: ¢ Old Fishermans Wharf, Monterey, USA a passenger and freight wharf which also served as the docks for the fishing fleet and housed the fish 12.

Theme Parks and Attractions canneries which have now been converted into an internationally renowned aquarium (The Monterey Bay Aquarium), as well as specialty shops and restaurants now known as Cannery Row ¢ Sovereign Hill, Ballarat (near Melbourne), Australia replica of a mine in a former gold rush town in the 1850s Man-made attractions purpose-built to attract visitors The aim of purpose-built attractions is to attract visitors and increase visitor numbers. Satisfying visitors needs is essential in the daily operations of these attractions. You can usually find the following types of attractions included in a tour itinerary: ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢.

Amusement and theme parks Zoos and aquariums Museums and art galleries Retail shopping Amusement parks Amusement parks originated from pleasure gardens that provided a place for relaxation and temporary escape from the pressures of daily living and work. Visitors are attracted to these parks by the lights, sounds, rides, games of chance, food and a variety of activities. Live entertainment and special events may also be offered in the park to stimulate repeat visitors. Advances in technology mean that amusement parks can be built in any city or even offer temporary attractions to visitors such as a temporary amusement playground.

For example, over the years the Hong Kong SAR Winter Carnival has been held at a number of temporary venues such as former Kai Tak airport, Hung Hom Bay and the Tamar site. The concept of the amusement arcade and playground emerged when shopping centre planners and managers came up with the idea of providing video games, pinball machines, playgrounds with bumper cars and boats, a waterslide and other amusement games, all conveniently located inside the shopping centre. Examples: ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ Sega City Interactive Entertainment Centre, Irvine, California Seacon Square, Bangkok, Thailand.

Lotte World, Seoul, South Korea West Edmonton Mall, Edmonton, Canada 13 Theme Parks and Attractions Theme parks A theme park is a destination in its own right, which combines entertainment, food and beverage and shops, and an environment that is different from that found outside its gates. A theme is used to provide a focus for the design, development and operation of such a park. The concept of theme parks was championed by Walt Disney, who in 1955 opened Disneyland in Anaheim, California around Disneys cartoon characters (Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck etc.) and Americas past, present and future. In order to attract new and repeat visitors, a theme park must:

¢ Create a family atmosphere ¢ Be clean and visually pleasing Provide a wide variety of rides such as roller coasters, water rides; Provide a wide variety of shows and activities ¢ ¢ Examples include: ¢ ¢ ¢ Walt Disney World and Resort, Orlando, USA, Disneyland Resorts in California, USA; Paris, France; Tokyo, Japan and Hong Kong SAR. Universal Studios, Florida and California, USA; Barcelona, Spain; and Osaka, Japan Ocean Park, Hong Kong SAR Zoos and aquariums.

Large collections and displays of animals have served to draw visitors. Some successful zoos create a great deal of public interest and visits because of unusual exhibits, collections of animal species and efforts to recreate the natural setting found in the wild. Some zoos and aquariums include educational elements such as movies showing the behaviour of animals. In order to enhance the visitors experience, the management commonly provides opportunities for visitors to participate in interactive activities such as feeding the animals or taking part in animal shows. 14 Theme Parks and Attractions.

Some theme parks such as Hong Kong Ocean Park and Seaworld in San Diego, Orlando and San Antonio in the USA, which adopt a marine theme, incorporate aquariums and animal exhibits as part of their attractions. Examples of stand-alone zoos and aquariums include the following: Zoos: ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ Panyu Safari Park, China Singapore Zoological Gardens, Singapore San Diego Zoo, California, USA Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Hong Kong SAR Aquariums: ¢ ¢ ¢ Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California, USA Georgia Aquarium, Atlanta, USA Underwater World, Singapore Museums and art galleries.

Museum types are extensive and include themes that cover art, history, science, technology, and military and natural history. Museums provide a valuable foundation for studying the past and thinking about the future. 15 Theme Parks and Attractions Table 3 Examples of various types of museums Type of museum Art Examples Louvre Museum, Paris, France ¢ History ¢ Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong SAR ¢ British Museum, London, U. K. ¢ Science and technology Hong Kong Museum of History, Hong Kong SAR ¢ Kennedy Space Centre, Cape Canaveral, USA. ¢ Hong Kong Science Museum, Hong Kong SAR.

¢ Hong Kong Space Museum, Hong Kong SAR Military ¢ Natural history ¢ (collections of animal species, rocks, crust etc) Museum of special collections ¢ ¢ ¢ Hong Kong Museum of Coastal Defence, Hong Kong SAR Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC, USA Hong Kong Railway Museum, Hong Kong SAR Flagstaff House Museum of Tea Ware, Hong Kong SAR Hong Kong Film Archives, Hong Kong SAR Retail shopping Shopping is a considerable attraction for tourists, and in many cases visitors are solely attracted by the shopping opportunities at certain destinations.

For example, tourists will go to London in January to enjoy the annual sales held at Harrods, a world-renowned department store. Hong Kong was once known as a shoppers paradise until the Asian financial crisis hit in 1997. As a duty-free port it had provided value for money, especially for 16 Theme Parks and Attractions luxury goods. Nowadays, the Hong Kong Tourism Board promotes Hong Kong as a destination which offers a wide range and variety of shopping experiences from bargain souvenirs that can be obtained at the street markets to luxury products in designer stores.

In recent years, shopping has been frequently combined with other forms of leisure in the design of an entertainment complex. Leisure could be in the form of an amusement park, catering facilities or even hotel accommodation. A recent example is the Venetian Hotel and Resort in Macau. Special events Festivals and events are one of the fastest-growing segments in tourism. Events are temporary attractions which provide opportunity for leisure, social or cultural experiences outside the normal range of daily activities. Destinations compete vigorously for mega events such as the Olympic Games and the Soccer World Cup.

These special events may generate economic benefits for the community including job opportunities and foreign exchange income. They can also add variety to the attraction profile and enhance the image of a destination. There are three basic types: sports events, arts and culture, and commercial events, as presented in Table 4. Table 4 Types of special events Type of event Sports events Examples Olympic Games ¢ World Championships (various sports) ¢ World Cup Soccer Games ¢ Asian Games ¢ Hong Kong Rugby Sevens ¢ Arts and culture ¢ Formula One Motor Racing ¢.

Edinburgh Festival ¢ Cannes Film Festival 17 Theme Parks and Attractions Type of event Examples ¢ ¢ Commercial events Mardi Gras (in Rio de Janeiro, New Orleans) Hong Kong Arts Festival ¢ World Wine Fair ¢ Munich Beer Festival ¢ Hong Kong Food Festival ¢ World Expo 18 Theme Parks and Attractions Activity 1 Identify FIVE local Hong Kong or China examples for each of the four types of attractions: Natural Man-made but not originally designed to attract visitors Man-made and purpose-built to attract visitors Special events 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 19.

Theme Parks and Attractions 1. 2 Other types of attraction (classification) Ownership Attractions can be operated under three different types of ownership, namely: ¢ ¢ ¢ Public Private Voluntary. In general, these three ownerships structures tend to own different types of attractions with different motivations and objectives other than making profits see Table 5. These differences affect the manner in which the attractions are managed and their daily operations. In particular, they affect decisions relating to an attractions planning and design, entrance fees and promotion.

Table 5 The ownership of attractions Type of ownership A. Public Government, local authorities and nationalised industries Main types of attraction owned ¢ Museums and art galleries ¢ Ancient monuments Main motivations for ownership and operation Main priority ¢ Preservation and conservation ¢ Archaeological sites ¢ Historic buildings Other priorities ¢ Country parks ¢ Education ¢ Forests ¢ Public access and increased leisure opportunities for the community ¢ Income ¢ Visitor management ¢ To facilitate tourism development in the 20 Theme Parks and Attractions.

Main types of attraction owned Type of ownership Main motivations for ownership and operation destination B. C. Private Commercial Organizations ¢ Amusement and theme parks ¢ Zoos ¢ Marinas ¢ Entertainment complexes ¢ Leisure shopping Main priority ¢ Profit Voluntary Trusts formed for charitable purposes ¢ Historic buildings, especially stately homes ¢ Heritage centres ¢ Museums ¢ Steam railways Main priority ¢ Conservation via income from visitors Other priorities ¢ Entertainment ¢ Maximise visitor numbers and market share ¢ Exploit new markets Other priorities.

¢ Education ¢ Visitor management Source: Swarbrooke , J, The Development and Management of Visitor Attractions, 2nd ed, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005, p. 10 21 Theme Parks and Attractions Activity 2 Find TWO attractions in Hong Kong which have different types of ownership. Compare and contrast their ownerships, locations, entrance fees, service, and facilities by completing the following table. Name of attraction Type of Location ownership 22 Entrance fee Services and facilities available Theme Parks and Attractions 1. 3 Primary and secondary attractions (Scale).

Due to limited time and budget, tourists usually set priorities for the different attractions that they will visit at a destination some attractions are more popular than others. One of the determining factors is the size and scale of the attractions, which may also be classified as primary or secondary attractions. Primary attractions They are the most interesting and popular attractions that tourists often choose to visit first. Sometimes they may even be the main motivator for tourists to choose a particular destination to visit.

For instance, most tourists visiting Beijing, China visit historic attractions such as The Great Wall, Forbidden City and Summer Palace. Primary attractions are those where tourists spend most of their time. This is because the site either is a vital venue for an activity (eg ski resort for skiing) or it is large scale such that the visitor needs to spend more time on the site to enjoy and experience it. Primary attractions often charge relatively higher entrance fees. Typical examples of primary attractions are national parks, world heritage sites, theme parks, ski resorts and world expos.

Secondary attractions They are smaller places that tourists visit on the way to and from the primary attractions. Tourists usually spend a shorter time in secondary attractions. They are included in an itinerary to: ¢ ¢ ¢ Serve as breaks for a long journey Provide a place for rest and refreshment Give the trip some variety Examples of some common secondary attractions include arts and crafts centres, picnic sites, lookouts and small markets. 23 Theme Parks and Attractions Catchment area This is the area from which an attraction is able to draw its visitors.

The size of the catchment varies from local to regional to international. Some attractions are able to entice visitors from only within a few kilometers (eg Sam Tung Uk Museum in Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong SAR) while other famous attractions are more appealing in the region in which they are located (eg Big Buddha at the Po Lin Monastery on Lantau Island, Hong Kong SAR). In reality, many attractions like small-scale museums and country parks only enjoy a local catchment area for they serve more as leisure facilities for local residents rather than as major tourist attractions.

Very few attractions in the world enjoy an international catchment area. They are usually unique and famous so that everyone would like to visit once in their lifetime. Examples include the Grand Canyon, Victoria Falls, Pyramids at Giza, Walt Disney World and the Olympic Games (wherever they are held). It is an advantage if an attraction is located in a destination with or next to a large population. This means that there will be a greater market potential for the attraction.

Apart from population, other major attractions and supporting infrastructure such as the transportation network, accommodation and catering outlets etc. within the catchment area are also key indicators which facilitate and enable the forecasting of potential visitor numbers to an attraction. 24 Theme Parks and Attractions Visitor numbers Attractions can also be classified according to how many visitors they receive. This figure varies depending on the appeal, size and scale of the attraction, from a few hundred or thousand visitors per annum for some small private museums to millions per annum at Disneyland.

The highest number of visitors is often found at theme parks and famous world heritage sites. Attractions located in populous catchment areas have higher potential to attract more visitors. The International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions (www. iaapa. org), an international industry organisation, classifies amusement parks and attractions by company size and type. Any attraction that draws more than 1 million visitors each year will normally be regarded as major. The IAAPA categories are as follows: Class Definition 1a.

Amusement parks and water parks under 250,000 in attendance, family entertainment centres, attractions, non-profit zoos, aquariums and museums. 1b Amusement parks and water parks with 250,001 to 500,000 in attendance, family entertainment centres, attractions, non-profit zoos, aquariums and museums. 2 Amusement parks and water parks with 500,001 to 1 million in attendance, hotels and resorts, casinos and for profit zoos, aquariums and museums. 3 Amusement parks and water parks with 1,000,001 to 2 million in attendance. 4 Amusement par.

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