Does the height of a ramp affect the speed of the trolley which is traveling down it? Variables: Here is a list of things what will be changed and the things that will be kept the same in my experiment: The height of the ramp- I will change the height of the ramp by adding another book to the pile on the floor. Mass the mass of the trolley will always be constant.

Length of ramp-the ramps length will be kept at 1 meter. The speed I will measure the speed of the car each time the height of the ramp is changed (from 7cm, 11cm, 13cm, 15cm, and 17cm. Conclusion: My results: From my second graph (graph 2 where axis is speed2 / height) you can see that the height is proportional to the speed, as the height increases the speed also increases; Therefore height speed My results table show; When I have a ramp height of 7cm the speed of the car is 0. 23 m/s. when the height is increased to 9cm the speed increases to 0. 44 m/s.

This also proves that the height of the ramp is proportional to the speed of the car, and an increase in height also produces an increase in speed. When I let the trolley roll down the ramp I heard sounds which came from the trolley. This means that not all the potential energy at the top of the ramp is converted into kinetic energy, some of the potential energy was lost as heat and sound energy. The affect of friction also contributed to this. Using the results from my experiment I can work out the amount of potential energy, how much was converted into potential energy and the amount lost during the process.

Therefore, as the height of the ramp increases the potential energy increases. P. E = MGH: P. E = m x g x h Potential energy = mass x acceleration x height of ramp Therefore; Potential energy = 0. 78 x 10 x m Potential energy = mass of trolley x acceleration due to gravity x the Measure in kg height of ramp Measured in meters Here is my potential energy table: height (meters) mass o trolley (kg) acceleration (Newtons) P. E. (joules)

From this table I drew this table: height (meters) P. E (joules) Using a formula and the data above I can now work out the kinetic energy. KE = 1/2 x mass x speed2 Kinetic energy = 1/2 x mass of trolley (0. 78) x speed2of trolley. Height (cm) Mass (kg) Speed2 (m/s)2 Kinetic energy (joules) From these results I can draw this table; Height (cm) Speed2 (m/s)2 Potential energy (joules) Kinetic energy (joules)

If I calculate the differences between the potential energy and the kinetic energy the values would be taken to represent the energy lost as heat and sound energy. From these results I can now draw a graph to prove my prediction. Evaluation: I think that the procedure which I used was the best that I could have done, partly because the results I got were very good. On looking at my results I can tell that they were quite good because the line of best fit goes roughly through the top of all my results, and proved all points I had said in my prediction.

The method that I used was quite a reliable one and there were not very many problems that occurred from carrying out the experiment, The amount of energy loss from heat and sound when letting the trolley/car down the ramp was more than I expected. Safety: Make sure that the area we work around is safe for the students and the experiment. Make sure nobody can or will get in the way of the trolley/car.

Fair tests; I will make this experiment fair by: > I will make sure that the environment is normal (not windy) e. g.if there is wind while we do our experiments the windy can act as an extra force to the trolley/car or it can act as a resistance and slow down the speed of the trolley. > I will make sure that the ramps are smooth and no damage is or will be made on them. > Make sure I use same trolley at all times, different trolleys may weigh different this to will change the speed the trolley/car. > Make sure I always have the same length of ramp. Errors: Wind-may act as an extra force or a resistor this will change the speed it is traveling.

Instantaneous speed when the trolley/car is traveling too fast measuring will be difficult and not accurate. Therefore some of the results were inaccurate Loss of energy ; heat, and sound when letting the trolley/car down the ramp If ramp is too steep the trolley/car will topple over. ALL THESE PROBLEMS MAY RESULT IN UNRELIABLE RESULTS Improvements: The only slight improvements that I would do are; > Something to read the result accurately rather than a stopwatch e. g. a light gate which measures the speed of the trolley/ramp.

> A longer ramp, which makes the trolley/car travel a longer distance which will get more accurate results I can extend the investigation by using a longer ramp e. g. 2 meters and see the differences in between the two, e. g. put both ramps at same a height let a car go down it, then make the ramps height increase 5cm more and put the car down the ramp, and see how the speed of the car differs from the long and short ramp. > From my potential energy graph, you can see that the potential energy is proportional to the height, and the more the height the greater the potential energy.

> From my kinetic energy graph you can see that the kinetic energy is proportional to the height, as the height increases do does the kinetic energy. This is the cause an increase in height which leads to an increase in speed. Abdullah Elgayar Physics Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Electricity and Magnetism section.

Length of ramp-the ramps length will be kept at 1 meter. The speed I will measure the speed of the car each time the height of the ramp is changed (from 7cm, 11cm, 13cm, 15cm, and 17cm. Conclusion: My results: From my second graph (graph 2 where axis is speed2 / height) you can see that the height is proportional to the speed, as the height increases the speed also increases; Therefore height speed My results table show; When I have a ramp height of 7cm the speed of the car is 0. 23 m/s. when the height is increased to 9cm the speed increases to 0. 44 m/s.

This also proves that the height of the ramp is proportional to the speed of the car, and an increase in height also produces an increase in speed. When I let the trolley roll down the ramp I heard sounds which came from the trolley. This means that not all the potential energy at the top of the ramp is converted into kinetic energy, some of the potential energy was lost as heat and sound energy. The affect of friction also contributed to this. Using the results from my experiment I can work out the amount of potential energy, how much was converted into potential energy and the amount lost during the process.

Therefore, as the height of the ramp increases the potential energy increases. P. E = MGH: P. E = m x g x h Potential energy = mass x acceleration x height of ramp Therefore; Potential energy = 0. 78 x 10 x m Potential energy = mass of trolley x acceleration due to gravity x the Measure in kg height of ramp Measured in meters Here is my potential energy table: height (meters) mass o trolley (kg) acceleration (Newtons) P. E. (joules)

From this table I drew this table: height (meters) P. E (joules) Using a formula and the data above I can now work out the kinetic energy. KE = 1/2 x mass x speed2 Kinetic energy = 1/2 x mass of trolley (0. 78) x speed2of trolley. Height (cm) Mass (kg) Speed2 (m/s)2 Kinetic energy (joules) From these results I can draw this table; Height (cm) Speed2 (m/s)2 Potential energy (joules) Kinetic energy (joules)

If I calculate the differences between the potential energy and the kinetic energy the values would be taken to represent the energy lost as heat and sound energy. From these results I can now draw a graph to prove my prediction. Evaluation: I think that the procedure which I used was the best that I could have done, partly because the results I got were very good. On looking at my results I can tell that they were quite good because the line of best fit goes roughly through the top of all my results, and proved all points I had said in my prediction.

The method that I used was quite a reliable one and there were not very many problems that occurred from carrying out the experiment, The amount of energy loss from heat and sound when letting the trolley/car down the ramp was more than I expected. Safety: Make sure that the area we work around is safe for the students and the experiment. Make sure nobody can or will get in the way of the trolley/car.

Fair tests; I will make this experiment fair by: > I will make sure that the environment is normal (not windy) e. g.if there is wind while we do our experiments the windy can act as an extra force to the trolley/car or it can act as a resistance and slow down the speed of the trolley. > I will make sure that the ramps are smooth and no damage is or will be made on them. > Make sure I use same trolley at all times, different trolleys may weigh different this to will change the speed the trolley/car. > Make sure I always have the same length of ramp. Errors: Wind-may act as an extra force or a resistor this will change the speed it is traveling.

Instantaneous speed when the trolley/car is traveling too fast measuring will be difficult and not accurate. Therefore some of the results were inaccurate Loss of energy ; heat, and sound when letting the trolley/car down the ramp If ramp is too steep the trolley/car will topple over. ALL THESE PROBLEMS MAY RESULT IN UNRELIABLE RESULTS Improvements: The only slight improvements that I would do are; > Something to read the result accurately rather than a stopwatch e. g. a light gate which measures the speed of the trolley/ramp.

> A longer ramp, which makes the trolley/car travel a longer distance which will get more accurate results I can extend the investigation by using a longer ramp e. g. 2 meters and see the differences in between the two, e. g. put both ramps at same a height let a car go down it, then make the ramps height increase 5cm more and put the car down the ramp, and see how the speed of the car differs from the long and short ramp. > From my potential energy graph, you can see that the potential energy is proportional to the height, and the more the height the greater the potential energy.

> From my kinetic energy graph you can see that the kinetic energy is proportional to the height, as the height increases do does the kinetic energy. This is the cause an increase in height which leads to an increase in speed. Abdullah Elgayar Physics Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Electricity and Magnetism section.