China put their trust in the mandate of heaven, which is a Chinese political theory that gave those in power the right to rule from a divine authority. Imperial Rome relied on a monarchy system, which put Augustus Caesar (Julius Caesars son) into power. Another factor that differentiated Han China and Imperial Rome was their territorial expansion. Imperial Rome expanded from Italy to Spain, Gaul, Macedonia, Asia Minor, Egypt, Greece and Britannia. However, although Han China expands throughout Asia, they felt they did not need to expand much to sustain their power. Nonetheless, what allowed Han China and Imperial Rome to resemble each other, was there centralized bureaucracies. This is a government system in which all of the important decisions are made by one or a few authorities in a region.
Han China (206 B.C.E. 220 C.E.) and Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E. 476 C.E.) discriminate more with their political methods, than relate to one another. Two distinctions would be their political philosophies, mandate of heaven and monarchy, and their territorial expansion concepts. One aspect that helped them relate to one another was that they shared the ideal of a centralized bureaucracy.