Bones are in a state of changing where new bone tissues are replacing the old bone tissue in order to keep the strength. It affects men and women, but it is usually a disease that affects women. However, when someone is diagnosed with osteoporosis it means that the bone tissue and mass is not replaced as fast with new bone tissue, which is one factor of osteoporosis. Another factor that causes osteoporosis is a deficiency in estrogen which typically occurs in menopause, causing low bone density because of the drop of estrogen. The probable effects of osteoporosis on an everyday life of an 84- year old thin white female may be critical. Since the bones become so thin and have low bone density, a minor fall can cause a fracture. Of all bone deficiencies osteoarthritis is the most common. It typically comes with aging and wearing of the joints. According to Hugle et al. (2012) half of all persons aged over 65 suffer from osteoarthritis (Hugle, Geurts, Nuesch, Luller-Gerbi, & and Valderrabano, 2012). The joints have a protective cartilage on the end of your bones that once you get older wears down damaging the joints. It affects both men and women. Generally before the age of 45 affects men and affects women normally after the age of 55.
The causes of the osteoarthritis are not due to injury or wear and tear of the joint although can have an increase in the severity but it mostly has to do with the natural aging of the joint. It primarily affects the hands, feet, knees and hips. In an 84 year old thin, white female, osteoarthritis can be painful. Stiffness is a symptom of osteoarthritis which causes pain after inactivity of the joint after a period of time. Muscle atrophy, the wasting of muscle tissue, has various causes, including sedentary lifestyle, aging, arthritis and spinal cord damage. This condition falls into two categories: disuse atrophy, in which the loss of muscle tissue is due to reduced physical activity, and neurogenic atrophy, in which the nerve that connects to the muscle is injured or diseased. In an 84 year old thin, small boned white female loss of muscle mass can be characterized by fatigue, extreme muscle weakness, or the actual shrinking of the physical body of the affected individual.
Individuals who suffer from muscle atrophy may experience a significant decrease in quality of life, as the simplest actions usually performed without a thought may become difficult or impossible. For example, bending down to pick something up from the floor will be a difficult task, and the risk of falling when walking may also increase significantly. It is important to seek medical care when muscle atrophy is present in order to hopefully diagnose and treat its root cause and increase ones quality of life. Osteoporosis is a common problem, especially for older women. Bones break more easily, and compression fractures of the vertebrae can cause pain and reduce mobility for a 84 year old thin, small boned white female.
Muscle weakness contributes to fatigue, weakness, and reduced activity tolerance. Joint problems are extremely common. This may be anything from mild stiffness to debilitating arthritis. The risk of injury increases because gait changes, instability, and loss of balance may lead to falls. Muscle contractures may occur in people who are unable to move on their own or have their muscles stretched through exercise. Exercise is one of the best ways to slow or prevent problems with the muscles, joints, and bones. A moderate exercise program can help you maintain strength, balance, and flexibility. Exercise helps the bones stay strong.
Aging changes in the bones-muscle-joints. Retrieved January 31, 2013, from Medline Plus: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/004015.htm Coleman, A. B. (2010). Aging and Bone . Journal of Dental Research, 1333-1348. Hugle,
T., Geurts, J., Nuesch, C., Luller-Gerbi, M., & and Valderrabano, V. (2012). Aging and Osteoarthritis: An inevitable encounter? Journal of Aging Research, 2835-2844.