A) Selling price of bond

The determination of the selling price of bonds is important because it helps the bondholders know the yield they will receive if they were to purchase the bond.

Bonds can be issued at par, premium and at a discount. A Bond is said to be issued at par if the yield is equal to the coupon rate. If the current market yield is more than the coupon rate stated on the bond, then, that bond has been issued at premium. If the coupon rate is more than the yield rate currently earned by similar bonds in the market (Sheth, 2007, Slide 23, chapter 12).

Bondholders receive periodic payments of interest amount, which is constant over the life of bond. Therefore the price of the bond is arrived at by discounting all these payments i.e. the selling price is the present value of all periodic payments plus the present value of the maturity amount, which is the principle amount of the bond. (Englard, 1992, Page 6, chapter 1).

The formula for calculating the price of the bond is as shown below.

Bond price= (PV) =p (1+r)-2 + p (1+r)-2 +¦. +p (1+r)-n + m (1+R)-n

Where =p= period receipt/payment

r=required yield effective

M=maturity value (principle amount)

The periodic receipts of interest amount are constant over the bond period and therefore are annuity in nature.

Therefore to calculate the present value of the interest payments the annuity formula is used.

Present value interest payments= Constant interest receipts* (1-(1 +r) n

The maturity amount (principle) is received as a single amount at the end of the bond period, thus is a single amount discounted using the single amount formula.

Present value maturity value =m (1+r)-1

Therefore, the total selling price is the sum of present value of interest and principal amount.

2) Presentation of bonds in balance sheet

When a bond is issued, the following factors are considered in accounting for the bonds.

Recording the issue or purchase of the bond

Recording the interest received during the life of the bond.

-Accounting for the retirement (through calling, refinancing or conversion) of the bond. (Sheth, 2007, Slide 16, Chapter 12)

Issuers books

As seen earlier bonds can be issued at par, discount or premium.

Bond issued at par- the bonds were issued between interest dates.

Long-term liabilities.

Bond payable xxx

Current liability

Interest payable (1 month) xxx

Current assets

Cash (amount of bond) xxx

Bond issued at a discount

Long-term liabilities

Bonds payable xxx

Discount on bonds payable xxx

Current assets

Cash (less discount on bond) xxx

Bonds issued at a premium

Long-term liabilities

Bonds payable (plus premium) xxx

Current assets

Cash (including premium) xxx

Investors books

The buyers balance sheet will be as follows

At par

Assets

Investments in bond xxx

Current-asset

Interest accrued (1 month) xxx

Cash (amount of bond) xxx

At discount

Assets

Investment in bond (less discount) xxx

Current assets

Cash xxx

At premium

Assets

Bond investment (plus premium) xxx

Current assets

Cash (plus premium) xxx

B) Income statement items

The items that will be included in the income statement of Norris co. for the year 2008 include

-Interest expenses

-Adjustment to interest expenses (amortization)

Interest expenses

The amount of interest is determined using the par value and the coupon rate and not effective rate. (Englard, 1992, page 2-3)

Illustration

At par

Using the example of Norris co. bond assuming that it was issued at par, then the interest will be 1000*xx%= interest.

At discount

Payment- interest = xx%*1000

Interest amount = yy% *(1000-discount)

The difference between the interest payment and interest amount is amortization of discount.

At premium

Interest payment =xx% * 1000

Interest amount= yy% * (1000 +premium)

The difference between the interest payment and the interest amount is the amortization of premium.

The determination of the selling price of bonds is important because it helps the bondholders know the yield they will receive if they were to purchase the bond.

Bonds can be issued at par, premium and at a discount. A Bond is said to be issued at par if the yield is equal to the coupon rate. If the current market yield is more than the coupon rate stated on the bond, then, that bond has been issued at premium. If the coupon rate is more than the yield rate currently earned by similar bonds in the market (Sheth, 2007, Slide 23, chapter 12).

Bondholders receive periodic payments of interest amount, which is constant over the life of bond. Therefore the price of the bond is arrived at by discounting all these payments i.e. the selling price is the present value of all periodic payments plus the present value of the maturity amount, which is the principle amount of the bond. (Englard, 1992, Page 6, chapter 1).

The formula for calculating the price of the bond is as shown below.

Bond price= (PV) =p (1+r)-2 + p (1+r)-2 +¦. +p (1+r)-n + m (1+R)-n

Where =p= period receipt/payment

r=required yield effective

M=maturity value (principle amount)

The periodic receipts of interest amount are constant over the bond period and therefore are annuity in nature.

Therefore to calculate the present value of the interest payments the annuity formula is used.

Present value interest payments= Constant interest receipts* (1-(1 +r) n

The maturity amount (principle) is received as a single amount at the end of the bond period, thus is a single amount discounted using the single amount formula.

Present value maturity value =m (1+r)-1

Therefore, the total selling price is the sum of present value of interest and principal amount.

2) Presentation of bonds in balance sheet

When a bond is issued, the following factors are considered in accounting for the bonds.

Recording the issue or purchase of the bond

Recording the interest received during the life of the bond.

-Accounting for the retirement (through calling, refinancing or conversion) of the bond. (Sheth, 2007, Slide 16, Chapter 12)

Issuers books

As seen earlier bonds can be issued at par, discount or premium.

Bond issued at par- the bonds were issued between interest dates.

Long-term liabilities.

Bond payable xxx

Current liability

Interest payable (1 month) xxx

Current assets

Cash (amount of bond) xxx

Bond issued at a discount

Long-term liabilities

Bonds payable xxx

Discount on bonds payable xxx

Current assets

Cash (less discount on bond) xxx

Bonds issued at a premium

Long-term liabilities

Bonds payable (plus premium) xxx

Current assets

Cash (including premium) xxx

Investors books

The buyers balance sheet will be as follows

At par

Assets

Investments in bond xxx

Current-asset

Interest accrued (1 month) xxx

Cash (amount of bond) xxx

At discount

Assets

Investment in bond (less discount) xxx

Current assets

Cash xxx

At premium

Assets

Bond investment (plus premium) xxx

Current assets

Cash (plus premium) xxx

B) Income statement items

The items that will be included in the income statement of Norris co. for the year 2008 include

-Interest expenses

-Adjustment to interest expenses (amortization)

Interest expenses

The amount of interest is determined using the par value and the coupon rate and not effective rate. (Englard, 1992, page 2-3)

Illustration

At par

Using the example of Norris co. bond assuming that it was issued at par, then the interest will be 1000*xx%= interest.

At discount

Payment- interest = xx%*1000

Interest amount = yy% *(1000-discount)

The difference between the interest payment and interest amount is amortization of discount.

At premium

Interest payment =xx% * 1000

Interest amount= yy% * (1000 +premium)

The difference between the interest payment and the interest amount is the amortization of premium.