Passive attacks: release of message contents and traffic analysis. Active attacks: masquerade, replay, modification of messages, and denial of service. The assurance that the communicating entity is the one that it claims to be. Access control: The prevention of unauthorized use of a resource (i. e. , this service controls who can have access to a resource, under what conditions access can occur, and what those accessing the resource are allowed to do). Data confidentiality: The protection of data from unauthorized disclosure.

Data integrity: The assurance that data received are exactly as sent by an authorized entity (i. e. , contain no modification, insertion, deletion, or replay). Nonrepudiation: Provides protection against denial by one of the entities involved in a communication of having participated in all or part of the communication. Availability service: The property of a system or a system resource being accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized system entity, according to performance specifications for the system

Plaintext, encryption algorithm, secret key, ciphertext, decryption algorithm. Permutation and substitution. One key for symmetric ciphers, two keys for asymmetric ciphers. A stream cipher is one that encrypts a digital data stream one bit or one byte at a time. A block cipher is one in which a block of plaintext is treated as a whole and used to produce a ciphertext block of equal length. Cryptanalysis and brute force. Ciphertext only. One possible attack under these circumstances is the brute-force approach of trying all possible keys.

If the key space is very large, this becomes impractical. Thus, the opponent must rely on an analysis of the ciphertext itself, generally applying various statistical tests to it. Known plaintext. The analyst may be able to capture one or more plaintext messages as well as their encryptions. With this knowledge, the analyst may be able to deduce the key on the basis of the way in which the known plaintext is transformed. Chosen plaintext. If the analyst is able to choose the messages to encrypt, the analyst may deliberately pick patterns that can be expected to reveal the structure of the key.

An encryption scheme is unconditionally secure if the ciphertext generated by the scheme does not contain enough information to determine uniquely the corresponding plaintext, no matter how much ciphertext is available. An encryption scheme is said to be computationally secure if: (1) the cost of breaking the cipher exceeds the value of the encrypted information, and (2) the time required to break the cipher exceeds the useful lifetime of the information. The Caesar cipher involves replacing each letter of the alphabet with the letter standing k places further down the alphabet, for k in the range 1 through 25.

There is the practical problem of making large quantities of random keys. Any heavily used system might require millions of random characters on a regular basis. Supplying truly random characters in this volume is a significant task. 2. Even more daunting is the problem of key distribution and protection. For every message to be sent, a key of equal length is needed by both sender and receiver. Thus, a mammoth key distribution problem exists. 2. 13 A transposition cipher involves a permutation of the plaintext letters. 2. 14 Steganography involves concealing the existence of a message.

Data integrity: The assurance that data received are exactly as sent by an authorized entity (i. e. , contain no modification, insertion, deletion, or replay). Nonrepudiation: Provides protection against denial by one of the entities involved in a communication of having participated in all or part of the communication. Availability service: The property of a system or a system resource being accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized system entity, according to performance specifications for the system

Plaintext, encryption algorithm, secret key, ciphertext, decryption algorithm. Permutation and substitution. One key for symmetric ciphers, two keys for asymmetric ciphers. A stream cipher is one that encrypts a digital data stream one bit or one byte at a time. A block cipher is one in which a block of plaintext is treated as a whole and used to produce a ciphertext block of equal length. Cryptanalysis and brute force. Ciphertext only. One possible attack under these circumstances is the brute-force approach of trying all possible keys.

If the key space is very large, this becomes impractical. Thus, the opponent must rely on an analysis of the ciphertext itself, generally applying various statistical tests to it. Known plaintext. The analyst may be able to capture one or more plaintext messages as well as their encryptions. With this knowledge, the analyst may be able to deduce the key on the basis of the way in which the known plaintext is transformed. Chosen plaintext. If the analyst is able to choose the messages to encrypt, the analyst may deliberately pick patterns that can be expected to reveal the structure of the key.

An encryption scheme is unconditionally secure if the ciphertext generated by the scheme does not contain enough information to determine uniquely the corresponding plaintext, no matter how much ciphertext is available. An encryption scheme is said to be computationally secure if: (1) the cost of breaking the cipher exceeds the value of the encrypted information, and (2) the time required to break the cipher exceeds the useful lifetime of the information. The Caesar cipher involves replacing each letter of the alphabet with the letter standing k places further down the alphabet, for k in the range 1 through 25.

There is the practical problem of making large quantities of random keys. Any heavily used system might require millions of random characters on a regular basis. Supplying truly random characters in this volume is a significant task. 2. Even more daunting is the problem of key distribution and protection. For every message to be sent, a key of equal length is needed by both sender and receiver. Thus, a mammoth key distribution problem exists. 2. 13 A transposition cipher involves a permutation of the plaintext letters. 2. 14 Steganography involves concealing the existence of a message.