Many things would have been more difficult, Rome would not have been able to enforce their laws and Emperor Wu would not have been able to strengthen the Great Wall of China. A political difference was that the Roman Empire was able to trade easily since it was near a body of water. The Romans had access to North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. However, the Chinese were only able to spread inland and it took them a lot more effort to trade. A social similarity between the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire was that they both had a common currency.
Since both civilizations have a central government; this was a smart move, it would keep the region more united. A major social difference was that the Han Dynasty accepted and believed in Confucianism while the Roman Empire followed Christianity. This difference in religion was caused simply by the choice of the region. A similarity in the economy of Rome and China include the fact that, both countries taxed their citizens heavily. This occurred because both civilizations occupied a large area and taking care of everything was expensive, so taxes were high.
This eventually led to the decline and the end of both empires. An economic difference is that the Han Dynasty had many resources while the Roman Empire only had metals. This gave a great boost the Han economy since it did not have to rely on other countries and had everything they needed. The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire have both shaped current day societies; such as laws and roads from Rome, civil service and common currencies from China. Present day is unimaginable without these things, things that we wouldnt have if it were not for the Chinese and the Romans.