Quotes from All My Sons by Arthur Miller Essay

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CHARACTORS

Joe Keller

I saw your factory on the way from the stations. It looks like general motorsp150

Allusion-Savy businessman

Well thats only your business, Chrisp100

Inability to stand up to Kate

in hopeless fury, looks at her, turns around, goes up the porch, and into the house slamming screen door violently behind him p126

Shows he can be neurotic

Chris¦ Chris, I did it for you¦For you! A business for you.p158

Keller deals with guilt by blaming others and unfortunately taints his love for his son

A man cant be a Jesus in this worldp169

Allusion He is realistic but slightly jaded you can try to fulfil your moral and social responsibility

Im his father and hes my son and if theres something bigger than that Ill put a bullet in my head!p163

Dramatic irony and prolepsis- family is the most important thing for him commendable but leads to his downfall as he convinces himself that he shipped the cylinder heads for his family rather than himself

(Chris with admiration) Joe McGutsp116

He is very brave

But I think to him they were all my sons. And I guess they were p170

Recognition that he has social responsibility cant live with the realisation

I cant sleep here; Ill feel better if I gop170

He shows determination there is a metaphorical recognition that he needs to die he is admirable even in death

The¦man who knows how many minutes a day his workers spend in the toilet p59

He has worked hard to be successful he has tried to follow the American dream

Im surprised you remember his birthday, Frank. Thats nice.p91

Exudes self-confidence and likeability

I want a clean start for you, Chris p124

Does love his son

Joe wants to bring you into the business when you get outp135

Emphaises his benign nature by referring to himself in the third person-When he gets scared he tries to buy people off

Kate Keller

If I tell this to Mother and she has a fit about it p100

Shows Kate is mentally unstable, has not accepted that Larry is dead and is protected by Joe and Chris. Adds to the tension of the play as we realise she might not be able to hold it together

Your brothers alive, darling, because if hes dead, your father killed him¦God does not let a son be killed by his father p156

Dramatic irony Kate reveals her supposition and her desperation to keep Larry alive in her mind as her argument is not a good one

(Mother smashes him across the face)p155

Onomatopoeia-Shows she is capable of violence

It takes a certain talent-for lying. You have it and I do. But not him p160

Shows that Kate has known about Kellers deceit all along. Highlights the theme of deceit

(She finds herself reaching out for the glass of water and aspirin) p109

From a Freudian view point her emotional turmoil is manifesting itself as physical illness

Be smart now, Joe. The boy is coming. Be smart p126

Repetion-Shows that she wants to manipulate George

(frightened at the thought you cant say that to her) p99

Shows she is a difficult character to understand and is neurotic as even her husband and son dont know how shes going to react

He hasnt been laid up in fifteen years p152

Colloquial-Shows her careless side and shows she is a little bit stupid

The minute theres trouble you have no strengthp162

Uses illness to manipulate characters to act benignly towards her

Forget now. Livep171

Clearly loves Chris

I m smarter than any of youp148

Shows she knows she can manipulate them

Ill find you a girl and put a smile on your face.. You remember Mr Macys daughter p149

Clich¯¿½d-Shows her manipulation can be a benign force

Chris Keller

Because sometimes I think youre¦ ashamed of the moneyp124

Hesitation dosent want to talk about crime Reveals Kellers suspicion that Chris is aware of his crime. It shows that Chris is an idealist

Oh, Chris, youre a liar to yourselfp143

Shows Chris is self-deceiving

Everytime I reach out for something I have to pull back because other people will sufferp100

Shows he is selfless

Oh Annie, Im going to make a fortune for you!p122

Hypocritical of Chris shows an idealism commercialism clash

Its time she realised that nobody believes Larry is alive anymore

Only acts on his idealism when it suits him has let Kate pretend that Larry is alive for the last three years until he wants to marry his wife shows his hypocrisy

But Im just like everyone else nowp166

Shows Chris arrogance in thinking that he was special

Im practical now. You made me practicalp166

Repetition of practical highlights its significanceSignals Chriss conversion from Idealism to pragmatism

A man can be a Jesus in this worldp169

Idea of Chris as Christ figure if you take his name metaphorically just add t to his name this is reinforced by this quotation

Ann Dever

Id like you to tell him that Larry is dead and you know it p165

Stands up for what she thinks is right

Its wrong to pity a man like that. Father or no Fatherp117

Ashamed of her Fathers role in the shop incident and deludes herself that Keller is right based on very little evidence

I want you to set him free and then I promise you everything will endp164

Ann tires of moral responsibility like Chris she loses her idealism and becomes more realistic she abandons her father for a chance to be happy

The female version of Chrisp132

Gives up her idealism for pragmatism (starting a new life with Chris) is responsible for tragedy

This is filthy, didnt you bring another shirt?p138

Ann acts as a maternal force for George

You understand me? Im not going out of here alone. Theres no life for me that way. P164

Determined to get what she wants wont listen to others

George Dever

say, youve gotten a little nervous, havent youp139

Uncomfortable in the role of justice

Because you believed it p143

Trusts Chris

Ill find you a girl and put a smile on your facep149

Clich¯¿½d-He is swayed by the promise of a happy and easy life

You look terrible, Georgep150

Standing up for his father has taken a toll

I told you to marry that girl

Lost out by being in the war

Jim and Sue Bayliss

It takes a certain talent for lying. You have it and I do. But not himp160

Jim wants to be idealistic but has sold out to become a good father

I¦ studied a certain disease. It was beautiful. And then she came, and she cried. And I went back home with her. And now I live in the usual darkness p160

Repetition of she and her Jim sacrifices his dream of being a researcher and his idealism

I told her to take up the guitar. Itd be a common intrest for them p110

Kate believes the Bayliss have too little in common

Everybody knows Joe pulled a fast one to get out of Jail p131

Colloquial-Show that the neighbourhood think Joes guilty foreshadows revelation that he is adds tension

They give him credit for being smart p132

Colloquial-Show that Keller is well liked and respected

Frank and Lydia Lubey

Ive studied the stars of his life! Somewhere in this world your brother is alive!p154

Satirical and dramatic irony Discredits fate as a force in this play as Larry is dead

Does dad expect a parole soon? p114

Both have a habit of making tactless comments which makes them disagreeable despite their amicable nature

Youre still making your own clothes? Aint she classy p147

Demonstrative of a couple living the American dream

THEMES

Confession

The structure of a play is always the story of how the birds come home to roost Miller

There is always the discovery of the past and a confession this is what makes a good tragedy

Forget Now. Livep171

Short scentances-The confession is for the better

[Desperately. Lost]p164

The confession evokes pity/fear

The star of ones honesty¦ he (Chris) probably just wanted to be alone to watch his star go outp160

This is the effect a confession has on others

[hopless fury]p126

Simile Causes anger

I was afraidp158

Difficult to confess emphasised by short sentences

Im not trying to hurt you Kate My Godp165-166

Confession usually causes pain

Guilt and Shame

Its wrong to pity a man like that. Father or no Fatherp117

Colloquial-Ashamed of her Fathers role in the shop incident

Chris¦ Chris, I did it for you¦For you! A business for you.p158

Keller deals with guilt by blaming others

What am I, a stranger? I thought I had a family here, what happened to my family?p161

Repetition of family Guilt and shame plays a role in the development of Kellers relationship with his father

I cant look at you this way, I cant look at myselfp168

Kellers confession leads to shame for Chris

(She finds herself reaching out for the glass of water and aspirin)p109

Kate is so ashamed of her deception she has a mental and physical breakdown from a Freudian viewpoint

(a shot is heard in the house)p171

Shame and guilt over the cylinder heads could arguably lead to this but I think If this had been the case Keller would have killed himself a long time ago instead I think larry and Chriss disownal of him and his realisation that he has a social responsibility cause him to kill himself he tries to make amends by killing himself and thus exonerating steeve and his family

I cant live with myself anymorep169

Larry kills himself because of guilt that he has helped build a business that has killed American pilots and shame that his father and father-in-law have made a decision that kills his compatriots.

They killed themselves for each otherp121

Chris has survivors guilt he feels responsible for everyone

Deception

I suspected my father and did nothing about itp166

Chris is self-deceiving

But theres God so certain thing s can never happen¦Ann, you know Im right! p113

Dramatic irony-Kate is self deceiving she gives a flimsy argument and clearly doesnt truly believe that Larry will come back as shes horrible to Ann so if he ever does come back Ann will not want Kate to be part of their life

It takes a certain talent for lying. You have it and I do. But he (Chris) doesntp160

This is Chris tragic flaw

Poplars cut off view p89

Delusion that Keller can cut himself off from the world

Loss

Im practical now. You made me Practicalp166

Repetition of practical Chris sacrifices his idealism for his family

I¦ studied a certain disease. It was beautiful. And then she came, and she cried. And I went back home with her. And now I live in the usual darkness p160

Repetition of she and her Jim sacrifices his dream of being a researcher

Chris, I did it for you p158

Keller sacrifices his morality for his family

I thought I had a family here. What happened to my family? P161

Loss of relationship between Keller and Chris and Kate

I told you to marry that girl p148

Loss of future between George and Lydia

Its wrong to pity a man like that. Father or no fatherp117

Colloquial Loss of relationship between Ann and Steve

I was going to tell them¦ it was too late p157

Clich¯¿½d Loss of opportunity to warn about the faulty parts

four-foot high stump p89

Symbolises the loss of Larry

Because if hes not coming back, then Ill kill myself p107

Bathos How Kate deals with loss of Larry = loss of mental stability

Were like at a railway station waiting for a train that never comes in p106

Simile Chris deals with loss of Larry by trying to move on

[Increasing demand]p113

Conflict over different ways of dealing with the past and the loss of Larry each character tries to get their point across

Those dear dead days beyond recallp110

alliterationLoss of the benign past

I want a clean start for you, Chris p124

Idiom Deals with loss of past by breaking from it

Lets¦ raise some hell around here, like we used to before Larry went! p110

idiomAnn deals with past by resurrecting it

Suicide

I cant bear to live any more¦ I read about dad being convictedp169

Larry commits suicide because of guilt does this make him a coward or a tragic hero?

If hes not coming back Ill kill myselfp107

Bathos Irony as Larry has killed himself foreshadows this discovery

Im his father and hes my son and if theres something bigger than that Ill put a bullet in my head!p163

Bathos Dramatic irony

You stop that! p163

Short scentance emphaises shockMothers reaction to suicide

[A shot is heard in the house] p171

Kellers reaction to Larrys suicide

They killed themselves for each otherp121

Chris has a different attitude to suicide than his parents

War profiteering

What you have is loot and it has blood on itp121

Metaphor Chris is ashamed of it

Did they ship a gun or a truck out of Detroit before they got their price?p168

Allusion-Realism argument it is too idealistic to expect people to work for nothing

Chris, I did it for you p158

Kellers attitude is that war profiteering is fine if it is done for the family

But I think to him they were all my sons. And I guess they were p170

Shows Kellers change of mind he can no longer justify war profiteering through his family he now believes he has social and moral responsibility

Moral Responsibility

I¦ studied a certain disease. It was beautiful. And then she came, and she cried. And I went back home with her. And now I live in the usual darkness p160

Repetition of she and her Jim neglected being true to himself

The star of ones honesty¦ he probably just wanted to be alone to watch his star go outp160

Simile Lack of honesty from all characters even eventually Chris

Its wrong to pity a man like that. Father or no fatherp117

Colloquial Lack of forgiveness from Ann and initially George

I said hes dead.I know!p165

Ann shows moral responsibility when she bravely tries to convince broken pscyotic women that her son is dead as she has found out

I cant bear to live anymorep169

Larry cant forgive

I want you to set him free and then I promise you everything will be at an endp164

Metaphor Ann tires of moral responsibility

I cant look at you this way. I cant look at myselfp169

Cant emphasised Chris finds it hard to forgive and stay true to himself

A man cant be a Jesus in this worldp169

Allusion Keller lies about Steve and his involvement with the faulty parts

Social responsibility

Im his father and hes my son and if theres something bigger than that then Ill put a bullet through my headp163

Irony and bathos Kellers initial delusion about social responsibility his journey through the play is the discovery that there is more than this

But I think to him they were all my sons. And I guess they were p170

Recognition that he has social responsibility cant live with the realisation

To him the world had a forty-foot front; it ended at the building linep163

Shows Larry initially ignored his social responsibility

I cant bear to live any morep169

Realises he has social responsibility and that he has been indirectly forced by his father to neglect this but does he neglect his social responsibility by killing himself taking a pilot away from benefiting his country?

Heroism

A hero is someone who has given his or her life to something bigger than oneself Joseph Campbell (American folklorist)

A tragic hero is A man not pre-eminently virtuous and just, whose misfortune however, is brought upon him not by vice or depravity but by some error of judgement Aristotle

Miller was aware of this definition

Im his father and hes my son and if theres something bigger than that then Ill put a bullet through my headp163

Bathos and irony Joe is a hero according to Campbells definition

Forget now. Livep171

Short scentances show shock Through death he is able to save his family from long term suffering

I cant sleep here; Ill feel better if I gop170

He shows determination there is a metaphorical recognition that he needs to die

Well thats only your business Chrisp100

He doesnt want to confront his wife so he becomes alienated from his son

Chris knows Keller is no worse than no men. I thought you were better. I never saw you as a man. I saw you as my fatherp168

Cylinder heads cause break with Chris and tragedy

I suspected my father and did nothing about itp166

Chris is self-deceiving although it could be argued that fate takes a part as Kellers deception could have remained hidden from the outside world through the court paper. Kellers mistake has already destroyed his family the real tragedy as everything hes worked for has been for them for you, a business for you

She finds herself reaching out for the glass of water and asprinp109

Causes a mental and physical deterioration for Kate

Oh my Godp166

Refuses to believe her son is dead despite all the evidence

Id hoped that if I waited, mother would forget Larry and then wed have a regular wedding and everything happy, but if that cant happen then Ill have to get out of herep101

Ironically Mother drives Chris away by refusing to agree with the evidence

Its wrong to pity a man like that. Father or no fatherp117

Abandons her father and believes Joe only to find out she was wrong to do so

Oh Chris, Ive been ready for a long, long time p120

Repetition of long Although she is not responsible for Larrys death a great tragedy in her life she does kill his memory by getting engaged with Chris

The female version of Chrisp132

Gives up her idealism for pragmatism (starting a new life with Chris) is responsible for tragedy

He won the war, Frankp148

George lost the love of his life to Frank

I told you when you went away, dont try for medalsp145

Aphorism He was initially eager to get away from the neighbourhood and become a soldier

I¦ studied a certain disease. It was beautiful. And then she came, and she cried. And I went back home with her. And now I live in the usual darkness p160

Repetition of she and her Jim is responsible for his own tragedy but is a hero as he remains a good husband and conformed to the prosaic

The world had a forty-foot front it ended at the building linep163

Larry recognises that this is not the case and tries to make amends for it by suicidially fighting for his country

Return of the Past

The past is always present and cannot be ignored, forgotten or denied Centola

Idealism vs. Commercialism

Chris, Jim, George and Ann vs. Joe and Sue

When you marry never count your husbands money p110

Aphorism The majority of the characters advocate idealism over commercialism

Because sometimes I think youre¦ ashamed of the moneyp124

Hesitation shows conflict Keller thinks Commercialism can act as a benign force

Oh Annie, Im going to make a fortune for you!p122

Hypocritical of Chris

For you, a business for youp158

Keller and Chris have the same attitude when they have a family they both ultimately want to work for them

The business! The business doesnt inspire mep102

More interested in idealism but has still sold out for money but in denial that hes done so

And hes got money. Thats important, you knowp130

Suggests that Chris can afford to be idealistic sue values materialism

As soon as a woman supports a man, he owes her something. You can never owe somebody something without resenting themp130

Money affects relationships

I¦ studied a certain disease. It was beautiful. And then she came, and she cried. And I went back home with her. And now I live in the usual darkness p160

Repetition of she and her Jim has made a compromise between the two

Joe wants to bring you into the business when you get out p135

Uses the third person Compromise between commercialism and idealism he knows Steve will not want to work for the better of the business

Im practical now. You made me Practicalp166

Repetition of practical Chris sacrifices his idealism for his family

Family Relationships

Keller Family

Keller and Larry

If Larry were alive he wouldnt act like this. That was a boy we lost. Larry.p163

Irony Larry is his favourite son he understands him

I think to him they were all my sons. And I guess they werep170

Keller is prepared to change his views for Larry

Keller and Chris

Ive been a good son too long, a good suckerp102

Colloquial They dont understand each other but are ultimately prepared to make compromises for each other

Chris¦Chris, I did it for youp154

Keller taints there relationship by trying to put the blame for the cylinder heads on Chris

Im his father and hes my son and if theres something bigger than that then Ill put a bullet through my headp163

Irony and bathos Shows that he does love Chris

Chris and Larry

(Chris is discovered sawing the broken-off tree, leaving stump standing alone)p127

Tries to clear away Larrys memory

Mother and Chris

Shes Larrys girlp155

Colloquial Seems to care about Larry more

Forget now. Livep171

Short scentances Her maternal side comes out to Chris once Larry is dead

Mother and Larry

Irony and bathos Because if hes not coming back then Ill kill myselfp107

Cant let go of Larry

I knew I could stop himp105

Irony Believes she can save Larry

Keller and Kate

I wear the pants and she beats me with the beltp150

Kate emotionally blackmails Keller

Deever Family

Ann, George and their absent father might be viewed as the opposite of the Kellers

Ann and Steve

Its wrong to pity a man like that. Father or no fatherp117

Colloquial Abandons her father and believes Joe with little evidence

Ill do nothing about Joe p164

Sacrifices Steve being exonerated for her future happiness

Ann and George

Youre coming with mep144

He is prepared to sacrifice her happiness for his idealism they dont have a very strong relationship

This is filthy, didnt you bring another shirt?p138

Ann acts as a maternal force for George

Steve and George

I didnt see him once when I got home from the war!p141

George initially chooses idealism over his father

Wears (your fathers) hat139

Eventually compromises and wears his hat as he loves him

Lubey Family

I dont know why you cant learn to turn on a simple thing like a toaster! p94

Demonstrative of the perfect family without idealism living the American dream

American Dream

The American dream is a subjective term usually implying a successful and satisfying life. Perceptions of the American dream are usually framed in terms of American capitalism, and the freedoms guaranteed by the U.S. Bill of rights

Ill get out. Ill get married and live some place elsep101

Freedom

I want a family, I want some kids, I want to build something I can give myself top102

Tricolon of want Belief that you can achieve what ever you want if you work hard for it

I dont know why you cant learn to turn on a simple thing like a toaster! p94

Demonstrative of the perfect family without idealism living the American dream

I¦ studied a certain disease. It was beautiful. And then she came, and she cried. And I went back home with her. And now I live in the usual darkness p160

Repetition of she and her Jim sacrifices his dream of being a researcher he is not living the American dream

I was the beast¦ Except I wasnt¦ Fourteen months later I had of the best shops in the state again, a respected man again; bigger than ever. P116

Metaphor Failure of American dream should be in prison as has broken the law

Hope

Shes dreaming about him againp99

Kate hopes that Larry will return

I want a family, I want some kids, I want to build something I can give myself top102

Tricolon-Ann and Chris want to marry and be successful-live the American dream

Chris¦Chris, I did it for youp158

Keller wants to provide a significant amount for his family

Humour

I would love to help humanity on a Warner Brothers salaryp93

Foils provide comic relief in act 1 contrast to later tragedy

My love, My lightp93

Sarcasm from Jim

I like to keep abreast of my ignorancep96

Major character is introduced through humour contrast to his serious and idealistic nature

Dont talk dirty (They laugh)p134

Keller provides comic relief in act two and makes him more likeable

Justice

Justice is a main theme within the play All My Sons, and an example of justice being symbolised is the idea of Joe telling the children that he has a jail in the basement of his house.Although simple, this metaphor is quite powerful, as it suggests to the audience that he could be hiding more than just a basement to the people of the street. It could also suggest that he is keeping justice locked away within the Keller house, and as the children keep asking about the jail, there is an underlying idea that the truth about Joe could surface sometime within the play.

I spoiled the both of you

Something that is apparent throughout the book is the amount of money that Joe has earned through his business. Some may assume that Keller bribed his way out of prison, due his frequent reference to, as well as his constant reliance on money. He uses this later in the play as a way to try and justify to his family that if he had gone to jail then he wouldnt have been able to make all this money for them.

Everybody knows Joe pulled a fast one to get out of jail.

Whilst this may first seem as a cheap dig at the Kellers, this is confirmed when Jim says (to Kate) Ive always known. This would be negatively viewed, as because of these actions an innocent man (Steve) is in jail instead of Joe. Therefore, the characters are just as guilty as Joe for letting an innocent man rot in jail.

if [George and Anne] wanted to open up the case again.

Joes prediction is actually correct though, and it is the arrival of George which helps to uncover the truth about the cylinder heads. George therefore does a very good job or prosecuting Joe. A clever inclusion into the play is that George is actually involved with the law, as opposed to it just being a metaphor, like the other parts of the courtroom analogy. We get this idea through Chris question to him Hows the law.

Youre not even an animal, no animal kills his own, what are you? Im not going to do anything about it

Throughout almost all of the play Chris, Anne and Kate represent Joes defence.Chris suddenly becomes a prosecutor, voicing his fury and shame to his father Perhaps here we see a highly uncaring side of Anne, as she will gladly let her father rot in prison even though she now knows that he is innocent.

Religion

Every Sunday ought to be like thisp90

The play starts on a sunday morning which is a religious time of the week

chris

Chris name could be interpreted as Christ which would suggest a kind of moral superiority that he at least tries to achieve

downstage, stands the four-foot high stump of a slender apple-tree whose upper branches lie toppled beside it, fruit still clinging to its branchesp89

The apple tree is incredibly important in terms of religious symbolism. It obviously has connotations of the tree of knowledge the tree which was in the story of Adam and Eve. Its significant that its there as it is an indication of the fall thats about to happen (in the same way that eve fell from gods grace by eating the apple). It represents in this sense the knowledge of Larrys death and the real causes.

living next door to the holy family p131

The tree is a holy symbol however it is broken.the broken tree signifies that in reality, the Kellers arent as holy as they seem.

the trouble with you is that you dont believe in anything now I live in the usual darkness

My personal opinion is that Jim represents non belief in terms of religion. The idea that he lives in darkness suggests that there is no light from religion in his life. And perhaps his unhappiness is a result of this non belief. Although, as an alternative interpretation, you could say that the way he admires Chris (he meets a man and makes a statue out of him p131) and the fact that Chris could be interpreted as Christ means that he isnt a total non believer.

Nobody in this house dast take her faith away, Joe p 107

Although this is a references to Anns faith in Larry, it potentially has further reaching meaning. The use of dast is not in keeping with the general colloquial tone of the dialogue in the play, so it stands out. It almost sounds as if it could have been quoted from the bible. It is keeping with the idea that Mother is hijacking religion as reasoning behind her argument that Larry is alive

I never believed in crucifying people p117

Keller says this, and although its clearly a view that he has gained because he is guilty, its also representative of a forgiving figure. However, its also incredibly ironical since hes put Steve through jail for something he didnt do which is worse than crucifiction .

He was falsely accussed once and it put him through hell p133

Chris says this to Ann and the irony is that Keller lied and put Steve in prison actions that Christians believe would put him through hell the next time he is accused he will commit suicide an action Christians also believe will result in the perpetrater going to hell

George, you dont want to be the voice of God, do you? p140

And truer love hath no man! p 148

it has biblical echoes.

Is it junk to feel that that theres a greater power than ourselves? p 154

Thats all, nothing more til Christ comes. P155

Theres great irony in this statement from Chris. By til Christ comes hes refering to Judgement day (and therefore implying that they should never talk about the problem again). But in reality, judgement day is approaching (the day when the truth emerges and the day of Kellers death).

God does not let a son be killed by his father p 156

This is the whole concept that has led to Kates adamant belief that Larry is still alive.

Play

Act One

The Kellers home is describe as a secluded atmosphere and something about poplar trees. This creates he effect of the Kellers home in having something to hide perhaps, which is reinforced by annes comment that the poplars have gotten thick. Also Their house is described as on the outskirts of an american town. Well an could suggest that this does not only apply to the Kellers, but the whole of american society including the audience who are viewing the play. Also look at Frank entrance. He saunters in creating a sense of mystery and slowness about the place. Also look at the introduction to the materialistic goods such as the malt mixer, something which would have been fairly new, considering the context. Also there is a lot in Chris war speech, you could basically write a page on that single section and it is also good for linking in with the section ou have been asked. Remeber, always link this section to the rest of the play, without this you wont get an A.

Act Two

Act Three

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