Photo manipulation is done for a number of purposes. More infamously, it is for political or sensational purposes. However, photo manipulation is also an art form in its own right (www. brightclub. com). The photographs have been manipulated in darkrooms for decade. Before computers, photo manipulation was achieved by retouching with ink, paint, double exposure, piecing photos or negatives together in the darkroom, or scratching Polaroids. Airbrushes were also used, whence the term airbrushing for manipulation.
The first recorded case of photo manipulation was in the early 1860s, when a photo of Abraham was altered using the body from a portrait of John C. Calhoun. The 1980s saw the advent of digital retouching with Quantel computers running Paintbox, and Scitex imaging workstations being used professionally Silicon Graphics computers running Barco Creator became available in the late 1980s which, alongside other contemporary packages, were effectively replaced in the market by Adobe Photoshop (wikipedia).