Partnership in transportation sector can be classified into two categories. First there is incorporation of all means of transport, this include pipeline transportation method, railway transportation method, airway, shipment, road transportation methods. Second, there is integration of private companies and people that own the vehicles, marine ships, airbuses and pipelines, chamber of commerce and industry that has the potential human resource powers to innovate new technologies that enhance fuel saving, and other automobile associations.
In transportation, no specific body that can handle transportation sector individually without cooperation of other parties as indicated by Mark Wymond-1917-178 pages in his book Our transportation problem ,www.worldcatlibraries.org . For example, poor management of institutional framework may deteriorate roads management, railway management etc. Poor conditions of road, railways and airports because of poor services and maintenance may be another issue of concern.
Lack of defined responsibilities of each associate party, ineffective and weak management structures can also have adverse effects in the transportation sector. Lack of managerial accountability is another issue of concern; this is because transportation itself is an individual identity. Hence, there must be somebody to respond to various issues that may arise. The responsive party would include government officials and private transport cartels. Failure due to road and railway engineers adversely affects transportation sector. The government is involved in financing public roads and other means of transportation. The government makes sure that there is rule of law that is followed. It is the work of govern to mitigate the transportation processes.
Partnership transportation resulted in manner that was not supposed to be. It dates us back to the early seventeen century when the prisoners in Victoria were being transported from various parts of the country to Australia. This was an intention to punish the prisoners since there were no enough prisons to keep them. Therefore, a solution was found on to how to punish those prisoners. One of the best ways to do that was to compel the prisoners to carry out hard work, tiring jobs and boring tasks such as walking miles away to transport goods or to peak oakum.
Farming is another issue that resulted to partnership transportation. This included commercial activities occurring as transportation route; this made the construction of various transportation route e.g. The Chin ago canals, and rail lines were developed, linking the town to other parts of the region. A tract was opened to settlers and land companies by the Clinton treaty in 1788. The growth of Hamilton town was because of stimulation by several main roads, which crossed from east to west.
Therefore, there erupted a relationship between the farmers and transportation board in various countries. Transportation of farm produce resulted to growth and development of transportation sector. On the other hand, farmers benefited from easy means of accessing the markets for their produce. In the process, trading started and business thrived tremendously. This resulted to stiff competition that enabled business partners to merge and to come up with an idea to work together, this is how the partnership transportation emerged. That resulted to automobile firms that started competing on manufacturing different kinds of vehicles. Since then the technology has advanced to the manufacturing of space ships.
Status: current issues, practices, developments, controversies and impact of partnership transport.
The current issues of partnership transportation include commuters and commuting society, insurance and registration, maintenance and repairs, safety and development. There is the issue of confronting the daunting challenge posed by global climatic change. The main source of green house gases like carbon dioxide is burning of fossil fuel by either through burning coals, oils, petrol, kerosene etc.
Burning of fossil fuel include even idling. Therefore, global warming is caused by emission of green house gases that pollute the atmosphere and this go hand in hand with industrialization. It is due to industrialization that transportation is enhanced by manufacturing of automobiles. Therefore, there must be away of partnership association in combating the consequences of transportation. It is fair for industrialized countries to enhance the issue of mitigating this effect as they are the main cause.
Global warming is one of the negative impacts caused by the gas emitted by automobiles. Mainly the climatic change is usually caused by pollution that affects the ozone layer. Then the ozone layer becomes less effective in controlling the remittance of radiation from the sun. Therefore, the transport board must tackle this problem since they are part of the cause beside industrialization. In addition, this pollution has a major impact on the quality and feasibility of transit-oriented development.
The current issue of concern is to mitigate fuel consumption and to avoid accidents caused by reckless driving. Reckless driving practices can have a negative implication on automobile fuel economy. This project of training drivers can enhance fuel economy because experienced experts would save consumption. This is by using simple techniques like cruise control mechanism, pricing whenever possible, avoiding use of cab appliances, soft and gradual acceleration and progressive shifting. All these mechanisms enhance reduction of speed.
Transport sector in collaboration with the traffic police; address this issue by ensuring that transport rules and regulations are adhered to. Transit connectivity plan is improved daily to enhance pediatrician walking; this makes passengers movement easy from one movement to another. Goods movement services should be improved to enhance cargo and freight transportation, this include transit expansion program resolution for rail, road, bus and ferry transit projects.
Freight movement is essential to any economy and way of life. For example in each year in the US, automobile moved about ten billion tons of freight worth more than 7.5 trillion dollars whereby, the ground freight consumed significant energy and the sector grew as expected. This is a development issue because over thirty five billion gallons of fuel will increase to about forty five billion by the year 2013. The ground freight industry is large and decentralized; this is because seven million freight trucks and twenty thousand locomotives are in partnership transportation in US and this is not a simple thing.
Another development issue is the ongoing activities concerning pedestrians planning strategies, bicycle riders, community-based planning and development they intend to take. Controversies results due to the need of expanding the transport course, this is because expansion might lead to congestion or evacuation of some people from the intended bypass. This programs goal is to advance the findings of the lifeline transportation network suggestion through collaboration with community organizations, transit agencies and congestion management agencies in order to minimize the dispute.
Therefore, the controversies that arise due to congestion are dealt with. Other developmental plans include new means of transport being innovated to cater for the transportation needs of the countries low-income, elderly and disabled populations. For example, the community-based planning program. This programs goal is to advance the findings of the transportation network system through collaboration
Going on, there is this issue about the automotive & transportation practice and development.
These are the some of the current practices that include the automotive and transportation practice that provides global market research for the completed automobiles. Industrial analysis, concurrent business research which involves custom market research and consultation, market predicament, management consulting and innovation of new strategies result to emerging technologies that are designed to help transportation sector to address current trends and challenges affecting transportation sector and partnership. Another function is to identify new technologies that can lead to advantageous opportunities for growth.
This work involves a global team of automotive and transportation market research analysts, industry experts, and market consultants who continuously monitor the automotive and transportation industry including logistics, rail systems, automotive testing, diagnostic sand new chassis technologies. In this partnership transportation, there is training for drivers to be equipped with driving dynamics. This is because, new commercial vehicles that are being manufactured have these new technologies, for example telemetric and infotainment, power train ,alternative propulsion, safety and driving assistance not forgetting warning systems.
The floor is open for those wishing to join the partnership. The advantage is that there is acquiring of freight carrier innovative strategies, freight carrier commitment is enhanced through partnership, freight carrier fleet performance model are available and of course freight carrier benefits of partnership.
For example, truck and rail transportation provides a cost-effective means to transport much of Americas freight. Truck and rail fleets can take simple actions to make ground freight more efficient and cleaner for the environment. The following technologies and strategies can help reduce fuel consumption and emissions from freight trucks. First there is idling reduction in the engine mechanism, there is improved aerodynamics in aerial crafting, improved freight logistics.
Other current developments include, tire technology that involve automatic tire inflation systems of which tires with wide base are manufactured. In tire inflation system, there is adjustment of the level of tire pressure. This maintains proper tire pressure especially when the automobile is moving; hence facilitating longer service for the tire It is known that tires with wide base can reduce friction and resistance on the road. This would lead to saving consumption of fuel and other fuel related expenditure.
Tire technologies improve on reducing accidents by stabilizing the vehicles movement and grasping on the roads. Furthermore, there is production of low-viscosity lubricants that are used in breaks and other movable parts, less viscous artificial and semi-artificial lubricants can reduce friction losses in automobile drive train, emission of gases, and its engine friction. This actually saves the fuel consumption and hence emission of harmful gases.
Going on, synthetic transmission and oil lubricants can raise fuel economy by 0.7 and 2.1 percent in summer and winter respectively. Good news is that by replacing all transmission lubricants with less viscous fluid saves fuel with less or no additional cost. Other development systems are low weight body parts. This is enhanced by sing materials made of aluminum or other lightweight materials. By reducing weight, much oil consumption can be reduced. Actually, the possibility for weight savings is even greater in the automobile. Lastly, there is use of inter modal shipping systems and hybrid power train technology advancement.
In the current development systems, several technologies and practices can be used to assist drivers in reducing truck idling. A case study that was performed in one of the automobile firms show that reducing or eliminating prolonged idling of long-transit trucks can save up to one thousands gallons of fuel per truck each year. This would reduce global warming by reducing pollution emissions, and lowering the cost of engine maintenance. Some idling reduction technologies can minimize fuel consumption through air conditioning.
Some of the latest technologies include reduction on fuel consumption; manufacturers have focused considerable attention on implementing new truck tractor aerodynamics systems. By so doing they have achieved significant gains in fuel efficiency and reduction.
To improve efficiency in fuel consumption, improved freight logistics can enhance achieving the goal which include improved operation efficiency, saving fuel and increasing benefits and profits for automobile companies. Some of the current diplomatic strategies include load scrutiny and matching, more efficient coursing and scheduling of automobiles, and improved working policies. There is use of software to structure more efficient automobile routes. 
Social, economic and environmental aspect
There is a suggestion for long lasting solutions that would address social aspects, economic aspects, and environmental aspects. The suggestion involves a lifeline transportation program that works with local agencies to improve access to public transit for new entrants to the job market. For example, regional rail plan is helping develop a bay area regional rail plan to improve the current rail system, map out future rail lines and station locations, and integrate passenger and freight from rail sharing on existing tracks. Another example is the suggestion for a smart growth and transportation for livable communities bay area. The communities should embrace the idea by getting a little tender loving care from partnership transportation, in the form of initiatives to foster pedestrian-friendly development and travel options such as walking, bicycling and public transit. 
It is visible that Urban Partnership Program proposal to deliver congestion reduction by 2009 through a bold program combing the affiliated parties and experts concerned in tolling, advanced technology, transit and transportation if effective will address some controversies. The current controversies affecting the transportation sector include lack of agreement on terms of scrutiny. There are two controversy terms, that define the impact of partnership transportation i.e. there is technical controversy that defines failure due to decision of an expert appointed by the parties and non-technical controversy that deals with the rules and regulations.
The latter, involves bleaching of the contract that involves disputes arrangement on investment. This happened in an oil transportation controversy whereby they wanted the project to be concerned in establishing standards service for the future, rather than examining current controversies about work programmed. Overcrowding and reliability is also another negative impact caused by partnership transportation. This is a sensitive issue in transportation that require more detailed hearing to solve the pending problems
Some of these pending issues include, perceived transport problems, factors influencing travel behavior, transport licensing board service provision, infrastructure schemes, partnership approaches and innovative solution. Other development measures currently undertaken include expansion of airports and upgrading to an international level. For example, Durango la Plata county airport is expected to undertake some upgrading changes in the coming years. Some of Strategies to facilitate development could include expansion of the planning area, code requirements for aviation easements, and establishment of requirements for special construction on lands adjacent to the airport. Retrieved from www.laplatacountycolorado.org
Partnership transport is a broad business operation that currently integrates all areas of work. It has enabled the world to be seen as a global village. In essence, partnership transports easies the work of transportation and collaboration in the sector and other chambers of commerce. However, the controversies and negative effects should be dealt with immediately when they arise. Safer means of transport should be innovated to avoid negative impact such as pollution to the environment, air pollution and water pollution.
Therefore, it is of great importance to associate all stakeholders in transportation sector e.g. oil companies should manufacture lead free fuel to lessen the negative impact caused by the fuel. Actually, the engine life and service is directly related to the amount of fuel burned. In essence, the reduction of driving speed can minimize the cost of repairing the engine.
The maximum automobile driving speeds can be minimized through electronic software engine controlling mechanism, improved driver-training programs, or I house programs that motivate drivers for abiding with the rules and regulations. Almost, all new automobile engines in use today are electronically manipulated and the cost of changing the highest acceleration setting on these engines is to some extent negligible. The stated mechanisms, developments and resolutions to partnership transportation are the currents undertaking towards strengthening of the transport sector.
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Current undertakings on transportation sector, retrieved on 29th August 2007, available at www. emeraldinsight.com
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James A Merchant and Barbara (2005) Transportation: Facilitating partnership transportation, page 7 and 8 New York
Transport scrutiny update, retrieved on 25th August 2007, available at www. London.gov.uk
Transportation problems, retrieved on 25th August 2007, available at www.worldcatlibraries.org
Jacques and Whit ford (2003) Environmental impact: Road environmental aspects, published by St Johns N, L London
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