The author had come to the earlier conclusion based on the findings from a panel of software security experts who asserted that programmers in India do better work than their U. S. counterparts. He goes ahead to provide anecdotes on work done by programmers in India touching on faulty error processing practices, issues with referential integrity and difficulties experienced when having to make code changes (Coffee, 2004). Beyond such anecdotes, there is also evidence based on joint research work by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard, the University of Pittsburgh and Hewlett- Packard.
The research of a sample of 100 projects coded by developers provides defects rates in the U. S. , Europe and other countries, India and Japan. Defect rate refers to errors found in the first year of use per thousand lines of source code. It was found that while the worldwide average is 3 percent (that is, three defects per 100,000 lines), Europe and other countries had the highest defect rate of 5 percent, followed by India at 3. 3 percent.
The U. S. coders fared better than their counterparts from India with a 3 percent defect rate and the Japan led the pack at a mere 0.5 percent defect rate. In an article by Marianne McGee, Gallo CIO, Kushar predicts a reduction in offshoring cost savings as countries like India try to keep up with latest technologies thereby giving U. S. workers the edge in technology and business know-how (McGee, 2006). Other factors playing into cost of offshoring (not mentioned in Coffees article) include the fact that some programming, such as for Business Intelligence, requires local business knowledge (Consilvio, 2003).