Object-Oriented Analysis & Design UML Class Models Essay

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Developing Class Models
¢ Class diagrams developed iteratively
Details added over time during lifecycle Initially: missing names, multiplicities, other details

Class Model Perspectives (contd)
¢ Specification
Interfaces defined: a set of operations But, each implementation class can include more than one interface A given interface can be shared by more than one class Sometimes known as a type

¢

Some define particular perspectives for class models:
Conceptual Specification Implementation

¢ Implementation
Direct code implementation of each class in the diagram A blue-print for coding

¢

Conceptual perspective
Represents concepts in the domain Drawn with no regard for implementation (language independent) Used in requirements analysis

2/7/00

G-3

2/7/00

G-4

Documenting Your Objects
¢ Need some kind of record of your definitions
Your white-board? A simple glossary A data dictionary (perhaps in a CASE tool) ¢ ¢

Classes in UML Diagrams
Attributes in middle Operations at bottom
Can be suppressed. (What level of abstraction?)

Book +title : string

¢ ¢ ¢

¢ What to define?
Attributes, operations for each class Also relationships between classes

¢ Can you define classes of related objects?
Inheritance, Java interfaces

Attribute syntax: name : type = default Operation syntax: name ( params) : return type Visibility + public private # protected etc. nothing? Javas defaultpackage?

Book -title : string +borrow(c : Copy) : void +copiesOnShelf() : int +getTitle() : string 2/7/00 G-6

2/7/00

G-5

A-1

Associations
¢ For real-world objects is there an association between classes? ¢ Classes A and B are associated if: An object of class A sends a message to an object of B An object of class A creates an instance of class B An object of class A has an attribute of type B or collections of objects of type B An object of class A receives a message with an argument that is an instance of B (maybe¦) ¢ Will it use that argument?

More on Associations
¢ Associations should model the reality of the domain and allow implementation ¢ Associations are between classes A link connects two specific objects Links are instances of associations Note we could draw an object diagram to show objects and links ¢ But often interaction diagrams are more useful for modeling objects

¢ Does an object of class A need to know about some object of class B?

2/7/00

G-7

¢ Note: In practice, early in modeling, we may not name associations ¢ Note: One may choose to have a dynamic view associations: if at run-time two objects exchange messages, their classes must be associated 2/7/00

G-8

Multiplicity
¢ Also known as cardinality ¢ Objects from two classes are linked, but how many? An exact number: indicated by the number A range: two dots between a pair of numbers An arbitrary number: indicated by * symbol (Rare) A comma-separated list of ranges

Examples of Associations
¢ From a Library catalog example ¢ One book has 1 or more copies ¢ One copy is linked to exactly one book ¢ Should there be two associations: borrows and returns? ¢ One copy is borrowed by either zero or one LibraryMember G-9

Book

1 Is A Copy Of 1..*

Copy

¢ Examples: 1 1..2 0..* 1..* * (same as 0..* but¦) ¢ Important: If class A has association X with class B The number of Bs for each A is written next to class B Or, follow the association past the name and then read the multiplicity

0..* Borrows/Returns 0..1

LibraryMember

¢ Implementing associations depends on multiplicity
2/7/00

2/7/00

G-10

Generalization and Inheritance
¢ You may model inheritance early but not implement it Generalization represents a relationship at the conceptual level Inheritance is an implementation technique

Aggregation and Composition
¢ Again, just a specific kind of association between classes An object of class A is part of an object of class B A part-whole relationship

¢ ¢ ¢

Generalization is just an association between classes
But so common we put a triangle at the superclass

Note this is a relationship between classes
So no multiplicities are marked. Why not?

Inheritance may not be appropriate when its time to implement Objects should never change from one subclass to another Composition can be used instead

¢ Put a diamond on the end of the line next to the whole Aggregation (hollow diamond): really no semantics about what this means! Composition (solid diamond): a stronger relationship G-11 2/7/00 G-12

2/7/00

A-2

Aggregation and Composition (contd)
¢ Composition
The whole strongly owns the parts Parts are copied (deleted, etc.) if the whole is copied (deleted, etc.) A part cannot be part of more than one whole Mnemonic: the stronger relationship is indicated by the stronger symbol (its solid)

Example 1: University Courses
¢ Some instructors are professors, while others have job title adjunct ¢ Departments offer many courses, but a course may be offered by >1 department ¢ Courses are taught by instructors, who may teach up to three courses ¢ Instructors are assigned to one (or more) departments ¢ One instructor also serves a department chair G-13 2/7/00 G-14

¢ Aggregation and composition associations are not named ¢ They do have multiplicities ¢ They can be used too often. If in doubt, use a 2/7/00 plain, named association.

Class Diagram for Univ. Courses
chairs 0..1

Example 2: Problem Report Tool
¢ A CASE tool for storing and tracking problem reports

Department

1..* assigned to

1 1..*

1..* 1

Instructor

offers teaches 1..* 0..3

Course

Adjunct

Professor

Each report contains a problem description and a status Each problem can be assigned to someone Problem reports are made on one of the artifacts of a project Employees are assigned to a project A manager may add new artifacts and assign problem reports to team members

¢ Note this implies adjuncts can be chairs
2/7/00 G-15 2/7/00 G-16

Class Diagram for Prob. Rep. Tool
0..* Employee +name : string 1 1 Responsible For 0..n Manager Developer Problem Report 0..n About 1..* Assigned To Project +name : string Artifact 1 0..* +name : string +status : enum

Example from Fowler

1 1 Managed By 0..* History Log 0..n

History Entry -when : Date -whatDone : string

Code Bug Report

2/7/00

G-17

2/7/00

G-18

A-3

Objects, Object Diagrams
¢ Objects drawn like classes, but names for all instances underlined ¢ Objects may be anonymous ¢ Attributes are given values

Class Attributes, Operations
¢ Recall in Java and C++ you may have class attributes and class operations keyword static used One attribute for all members of class An operation not encapsulated in each object, but defined in that class scope

¢ In UML class diagrams, list these in the class boxs compartments, but underline them

2/7/00

G-19

2/7/00

G-20

Navigability
¢ Some call this direction of visibility ¢ Does each class really store a reference to each other? ¢ Do we need to decide this now? (When is now?) ¢ We can add arrows to associations to indicate this What does a line with no arrows mean?

More on Associations: Navigability
¢ One reason for having an association between classes: Messages between objects of those classes ¢ But, often knowledge indicated by association is only in one direction Example: In a computer system, a User needs access to his/her Password From a Password object we should not be able to get back to a User!

¢ Note: Often ignored until design!
2/7/00 G-21 2/7/00 G-22

More on Associations: Roles
¢ Review:
Associations have an optional name Name might have a direction indicator

Dependencies
¢ Dependency: A using relationship between two classes
A change in the specification of one class may affect the other But not necessarily the reverse

¢ But, direction or semantics often easier to understand if we simply but a role name at one or both ends of the line

¢ Booch says: use dependencies not associations when one class uses another class as an argument in an operation. ¢ Often used for other things in UML: A general relationship between things in UML Often use a stereotype to give more info

Student

advises

Professor

advisee Student advisor Professor

¢ Uses: binding C++ class to template; Java interfaces; a class only instantiates objects (a factory) 2/7/00 G-23 2/7/00 G-24

A-4

Stereotypes
¢ Extends the vocabulary of UML ¢ Creates a new kind of building block
Derived from existing UML feature But specific for current problem

Stereotypes (contd)
¢ UML predefines many:
Classes: , , , , Constraints: etc. Dependencies: , Comments: , Packages: , (maybe classes, too)

¢ Also, some pre-defined stereotypes ¢ UML allows you to provide a new icon! ¢ Syntax: Above name add inside guillemets (French quotes) ¢ Again, used to provide extra info about the UML modeling construct

¢ Or, create your own if needed.

2/7/00

G-25

2/7/00

G-26

Class Categories
¢ You can use stereotypes to organize things by category within a class box

Stereotype Example
«Interface» IStringifiable Module

stringify() : string «use» prints

¢ IStringifiable is not a class
Interface (as in Java) Module implements this interface

Printer

¢ Printer depends on whats in the interface
2/7/00 G-27 2/7/00 G-28

Interfaces
¢ Interface: specifies a set of operations that any class implementing or realizing the interface must provide More than one class may realize one interface One class may realize more than one interface No attributes, and no associations

Interface Example Diagram

¢ Notation:
Use with a class; list operations Lollipop notation

2/7/00

G-29

2/7/00

G-30

A-5

Classes Realize an Interface
¢ Realizes AKA implements, supports, matches, etc. ¢ This means that class provides all the operations in the interface (and more?) Remember, no implementation in interface definition

Tagged Values, Properties
¢ Every modeling element in UML has its set of properties
Classes have: name, attributes, operations, etc. What if we want to add our own? (e.g. author?)

¢ Realization shown with dashed line, hollow arrow
Like dependency plus generalization

¢ Why have this?
Just factor out common functionality?

¢ Just add text in curly-brackets, with name=value, and put below the element name ¢ Note: These tell you something about the model, not about the final system to be built! Often used for code generation, version control, etc.

¢ Better pluggability, extensibility

¢ Example: {abstract} classes instead of italics
2/7/00 G-31 2/7/00 G-32

Abstract Classes
¢ Implementation not provided for one or more operations
So, a subclass must extend this to provide implementations

Constraints
¢ Conditions that restrict values, relationships,¦ ¢ Can be free text or Object Constraint Langauge (OCL) (see textbook) ¢ Recommendation: Use sparingly! ¢ This example: from UML User Guide, p. 82 Portfolio Corporation

{secure} {or} BankAccount

¢ How to show this in UML?
Either italics for class name and operations Or, use {abstract} property by name

Person gender : {female, male}

¢ An abstract class with no attributes and all abstract operations is effectively an interface But Java provides a direct implementation
2/7/00 G-33

husband

0..1

0..1 wife

{self.wife.gender = female and self.husband.gender = male}
2/7/00 G-34

Constraints and Semantics
¢ Example from UML User Guide, p. 88 ¢ A dependency and a constraint used ¢ Shows Manager must be one of Members of a Department ¢ One link (say, Jane-toDeptA) is a subset of all links between Persons and DeptA

Derived Associations
¢ Often an association in a model be deduced from the existence of one or more other associations ¢ Do we show it? Is it redundant? ¢ Option: Draw it but mark it as derived Use a slash symbol / before name

Department

* {subset}

*

member 1..* manager 1

¢ Can use slash in front of class attributes too!
Course teaches Professor

Person
is taking / teaches student

2/7/00

G-35

Student

2/7/00

G-36

A-6

Example: Ticket Sales

Unused slides follow

2/7/00

G-37

2/7/00

G-38

Association Classes
¢ Recall that qualified associations really mean that the link between two objects has an attribute ¢ Often associations are first-class things They have a life-time, state, and maybe operations Just like objects!

Association Class Example

Company

0..* employer Job description : string dateHired : Date salary : Money

employee 1..*

¢ Association classes
Same name as the association because¦ They represent the same thing! 2/7/00 G-39

Person

2/7/00

G-40

World Cup Example
¢ We need a system to handle the World Cup. Teams represent countries and are made up of 22 players. ¢ Countries qualify from zones, where each zone is either a country or a group of countries. ¢ Each team plays a given number of games in a specific city. Referees are assigned to games. Hotel reservations are made in the city where the teams play. 2/7/00 G-41

World Cup Problem: Class Model
ts sen pre Re
0¦ 1

Team 2 * Qualifying Unit 22 Player 1

Hotel Reservation

*

3

Play
n ysI Pla

s at

City

*
4

Country 1 Represents

Zone
1

2

*

Referee

3

*
Assignment

*
Game

*

5

2/7/00

G-42

A-7

Qualified Associations
¢ Equivalent to programming language idea of lookup, map, dictionary, associative array, etc. ¢ An object is associated with some number of other
objects in a class How do we identify which one we want given that association?

Qualified Association Examples:
0..1 Show 1 sales Ticket

Show

¢ The qualifier documents attribute(s) used to identify which object The key for lookup

perf: Date, seat: Number

0..1 1 sales Ticket

¢ Formally, these are attributes of the association
0..1 RepairDesk jobID: int ReturnedItem

2/7/00

G-43

2/7/00

G-44

Identifying Classes for Requirements
¢ From textual descriptions or requirements or use cases, how do we get classes? ¢ Various techniques, and practice! Key Domain Abstractions: ¢ Real-world entities in your problem domain Noun identification ¢ Not often useful (but easy to describe)

Noun Extraction
¢ Take some concise statement of the requirements ¢ Underline nouns or noun phrases that represent things These are candidate classes

¢ Object or not?
Inside our system scope? An event, states, time-periods? An attribute of another object? Synonyms?

¢ Remember: external view of the system for requirements
Not system internals, not design components!
2/7/00 G-45

¢ Again, looking for things

2/7/00

G-46

Identifying Good Objects
¢ Dont forget from earlier:
attributes and operations are encapsulated in objects objects have a life-cycle

Actors and Classes
¢ In some diagrams, actors represented as class boxes
With special stereotype above class name:

¢ Also, dont worry about user interface
Think of user-commands as being encapsulated in the actors

¢ Consider:
Collections, things in a container Roles Organizations

¢ UML allows special graphical symbol (e.g. a stick figure) to replace stereotyped classes See Richter, p. 53

2/7/00

G-47

2/7/00

G-48

A-8

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