2.) The two main type are resident flora and transient flora.
3.) Hand hygiene is used to prevent the colonization of transient flora. It includes hand washing and disinfection. Hand washing refers to washing hands with an unmedicated detergent and water or water alone. Its objective is to prevent cross-transmission by removing dirt and loose transient flora.
4.) Hand disinfection refers to use of an antiseptic solution to clean hands, either medicated soap or alcohol.
5.) Alcohol is the agent that has excellent activity.
6.) Propanol is the most effective alcohol and ethanol the least.
7.) In several hours resident flora are completely restored.
8.) The type and duration of patient care influenced the amount of bacteria found on the caregivers hands.
9.) The factors for noncompliance include: insufficient numbers of sinks; low risk for acquiring infection from patients; belief that glove use obviates need for hand hygiene; and ignorance of or disagreement with guidelines and protocols. People also incur skin irritation.
10.)Reasons reported by health-care workers for the lack of adherence with recommendations include skin irritation, inaccessible supplies, interference with worker-patient relation, patient needs perceived as priority, wearing gloves, forgetfulness, ignorance of guide-lines, insufficient time, high workload and understaffing, and lack of scientific information demonstrating impact of improved hand hygiene on hospital infection rates
11.)Lack of knowledge on the topic is the key barrier.
12.) Highest compliance was ICU, and the lowest compliance was open ward.
13.) Hospitals should provide their workers with alcohol based hand rubs, and free lotions and antiseptics. They should also educate and stress the importance of hand hygiene to their workers. Hospitals should set up a framework and make good hand hygiene a part of the culture of their hospital