Mexico Post Colonial Essay

Published: 2020-04-22 15:24:05
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The history of Post colonial Mexico included many successful and influential leaders: Porfirio Diaz, Francisco Madero, Francisco (Pancho) Villa, and Emiliano Zapata. Disparities in classification of the revolution arise from the numerous factions and ideological assumptions advocated for the overthrow of Diazs rule, hence one can argue that it was a political, social, or economical revolution. A social revolution advocates a complete transformation of all characteristic aspects of society, encompassing the political structure, economically distribution, and social hierarchy. These men set forth some major objectives to revive Mexico that led to the Mexico Revolution of 1910-1916 and the Constitution of 1917. When Diaz came into powered he immediately began consolidating his power. He made use of tactics of effective dictatorship and divided and conquers the military, the church and even foreign powers. He even added his own people into state governors such as friends and family. He shifted commands for the m military, controlling courts, subsidizing the press and cultivation the support of the church.

He took his slogan, Order and Progress very seriously and those who failed to cooperate or to follow, he would have them arrested or even killed. He was very determining to change the tradition that Mexico had in the last few years of anarchy for economic and modernization would happen. The Pax Porfiriano was kept in place by support of the police. Diaz even set up a spy system where agents were on both side of the U.S. and Mexico frontier. Like I said before, political or any rival of Diaz was either shot on the spot (Ley Fuga) or sent to the federal prison at San Juan de Ulua. The failures of the Porfiriato Regime included economic trouble, failure of the elite to unify to put down the rebellion, and lack of a natural order of succession. These are some of the reasons that led to the Mexican Revolution and each affected various sectors of Mexico differently. Porfirio D­az was the leader of Mexico for over 35 years.

Although the tactics in which he employed to stay in power so long were unsavory, he made significant social and economic changes in Mexico. He was able to pacify the people by doing just enough to keep them from rebelling, and completely transformed their economic system. D­az changed Mexico by redistribution of land and was able to make Mexico a player in the global economy. All of these problems make it easier for Madero, Zapata, and Poncho Villa to gain support. The Diaz regime upset the Elite, agrarian peasantry, small landowners, rancheros, and the vaqueros. Members of all of these groups would join rebel forces led by Zapata, and the infamous Poncho Villa.

Unlike the revolts in 1810, the Mexican Revolution was not ignored nor put down by the Elites who actually joined the fighting. The elites had joined together to put down the revolts led by Hidalgo. This is an important difference, which shows a good example of meaningful change caused by mass discontent. The political, social, and economic divisions were wide spread throughout the central and northern regions. People had been pacified for 35 years under Diaz; these people were not happy or even content. Diazs order and progress in Mexico also opened the door for the Revolution of 1910. People of Mexico just needed the impetus to force change and Madero, Zapata, and Poncho Villa would prove to be just that.

Francisco Madero was one of the people that were frustrated with the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz. He formed an organization to promote democracy and founded several newspapers that decried the continued power of Diaz. Madero was really outspoken and tapped into a national dissatisfaction with the dictator. The Mexican presidential election of 1910 was stolen when Porfirio Diaz had his opponent Madero arrested and imprisoned. Diaz did hold elections but he declared himself President again Madero took refuge and fled to San Antonio and issued the Plan of San Luis Potosi calling for the nullification of the elections and upon Mexicans to take up arms against the government. The Plan of San Luis Potosi simply was for the people of Mexico to raise their arms to overthrow the dictatorship of Diaz and reinstitute democracy. The countryside and city joined together under the leadership of Francisco Madero to overthrow Porfirio Diaz after 1910. There were a number of revolts and uprisings around the country in Maderos name.

In February 1911, Madero and his men attached the city of Casas Grandes in Chihuahua and defeated Diazs federals. Madero and his men continued attacking other cities and they were warned not to get too close to the U.S. border because it might hurt Americans in the process of them fighting within their own country. However, his generals, Pascal Orozco and Francisco Villa, were eager to fight. They attacked Juarez against Maderos orders, and defeated Diazs federal troops again. On May 1911, a peace treaty was signed and Porfirio Diaz agreed to resign and to go into exile. On November 1911, Francisco I. Madero became the first new President of Mexico in almost 30 years. From the beginning, he was a moderate. He wanted to challenge Diaz, but he did not want to institute policies that went against the rich landowner class to which his family belonged. He kept most of the power structure created by Diaz intact, much to the dismay of those who had hoped for significant change. Very quickly, Madero alienated his former allies, Pascal Orozco and Emiliano Zapata.

Emiliano Zapata was born in Anenecuilco in the Mexican state of Morelos. His main sacrifice would be for his beliefs and the people of his country that he loved so much. Zapatas main cause was the return of stolen land to its rightful owners, the peasants of Morelos. The hacendados (hacienda owners) had taken over the land to build money-making haciendas. In the beginning, Madero was very supported of Francisco I. Madero and even formed the Liberation Army of the South to fight for the Maderista revolt.

But once Madero became president, Zapata quickly knew that Madero would not keep his promises of democracy and returning the lands to the peasants. Zapata knew that Madero was from a family of rich land-owners and was never going to take the lands away of members of his own class. When Madero was sworn in as president, Zapata and his men issued the Plan de Ayala (1911) which simply states that all lands should be restored to the peasants and Madero was not the leader that could bring back such things. Moreover, the Plans new slogan was called Tierra and Libertad. Madero was later overthrown, a new president came into town, Victorian Huerta but he eventually saw Zapata has a threat and had Zapata executed.

Francisco (Pancho) Villa was born in the state of Durango and was not educated but nevertheless rose to be a military genius. Villa was inspired by the Zapatista movement and admired Zapata for taking the first steps in the revolution. He was known for having forces of bandidos in his early years but transition his bandidos to revolucionarios. Villa remained in command of his Division Army along with Carranza and Obregon against the Victoriano Huerta dictatorship. A split among the revolutionary leaders soon pitted Villa against Obregon and Carranza.

When the U.S. government came out openly in support of the Carranza presidency, Villa retaliated by raiding U.S border towns. Villa was very popular but the combined forces of Carranza and Obregon defeated the Villistas in one battle after another. After two U.S. Army punitive expeditions into Mexico in 1916 and 1919 failed to route Villa, the Mexican government accepted his surrender and retired Villa on a generals salary to Canutillo, Durango. In 1923 he was assassinated while returning from bank business in Parral, Chihuahua. Villa is remembered with pride by most Mexicans for having led the most important military campaigns of the constitutionalist revolution and successfully invaded continental U.S. territory.

Now dont you think all of these things led to the Revolution? Well yes of course and their main objective and means set for the by the victors of the revolution in the Constitution of 1917. Mexico Constitution 1917 Article 27 simply meant that the ownerships of land and water were kept within the nations and the large estates to be divided into small properties.

The new Constitution was not well approached with humor and love and those interest groups whose influence it was designed to limit: the Catholic Church, foreign and national estate owners and industrialists. The Mexican states were not all equally eager to change their own laws in accord with the new Constitution. The country was still trying to lift itself from the problems left behind in the wake of the Revolution: agrarian, political, labor, economic and other difficulties abounded. But even though everything had occurred, it was the beginning for the rest of the century for government politics and a guideline of the national project.

I think that the Rosalio Mendoza would not be too happy with the outcome of the haciendas being divided especially that he was well to do landowner/merchant. I understand he played both sides against each other and for himself being the post-Diaz federal government under Presidents Huerta and Carranza vs. revolutionaries loyal to Emiliano Zapata. I think he would be okay in the labor part of the haciendas.

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