As for the Native American settlers, they have a President ruling a part of the world with his enterprising Texan republican policies! 1836-1845- Rule of Rangers After the Spaniards left the deserts and mountain ranges, Texans believed that they functioned as an independent nation. The golden nine period between 1836 and 1846 reveals the extent it functioned independently before it ceded into a state with United States of America in 1846. Texas, considered a land of immense opportunity for any business to flourish had progressive rulers who gave it a unique identity.
The largest number of military bases across the state makes it a defense zone even today. Freedom-loving Texans have taken lots of measures to tame the government beast. The state legislature is in session only for six months every two years. Legislators are paid only a nominal sum. The governor does not even have the power to appoint his cabinet. Texass minimalist attitude to government is embodied in one of the Texas Rangers favourite mottoes: one riot, one ranger. Before Texas became a Republic, a General Consultation was held in November 1835.
Nearly 150 rangers were deployed on the Southern frontiers in detachments slowly increasing it to 472 men by 1839. The rangers helped the Indian agents to carry out the Federal policy. In 1836 with Independence, Sam Houston took the treaties of Cherokee and other tribes of the Northern frontiers and met with success. However, Texas Congress did not acknowledge many of his efforts. Nevertheless, the tribes tried to make peace in the Republic of Texas. Mirabeau B Lamar made drastic changes in the Texan Indian policy. Thereafter the Eastern tribes were ousted from the republic.
When Houston returned for another term some of his polices were revived. Trading houses were established where hides could be exchanged for manufactured products. All the agreements were pro-Texas. The Indians were to give back all the captives, livestock and were debarred from doing business on white territory. Post 1845- Adoption of the Reservation System In 1846, Texas was annexed by USA amid warring Texans and Indians. They decided to fortify the frontiers for the benefits of the white population. It became the 28th state of the Union.
Naturally, the change in government signified sweeping changes in polity as well. The responsibility of protecting Texans from the Indians fell on the Federal government, which had no stake until then in any policy-making decision. They had to settle the long-standing problems Indians posed. It took nearly two years for some settlements. But by then the Texans were totally at the mercy of the ruthless Indians. Governor J. Pinckney Henderson took personal command of Texas troops in the war, so the settlers petitioned Lieutenant Governor Albert C.
Horton for help. Horton managed to muster five companies of mounted state rangers for frontier service. However, frontier defense would be a problem for years to come. In spite of the risks, settlers continued to press into the traditional Comanche range, putting themselves in harms way and beyond the reach of those few troops assigned to protect them. Small though it seemed in the vastness of Texas, the U. S. military commitment to Texas represented about one-fourth of the entire U. S. Army in the 1850s.
During the 1840s, one of the German leaders John O Meusebach settled a treaty between the Germans and the Comanches. It was an important step to open nearly 3 million acres of land to white settlement. Texans were fighting for more protection on the frontiers. They raised five companies of rangers at a huge expense. However, the Federal Government Army did felt it was useless! The late sixties of the 18th century were frustrating for the Indians, the Federal troops and the white Texans. Finally, the policy of slaughtering the Southern buffalo herd cracked the enemy resistance.
The Civil War in 1962 was marked with wide spread slaughter of various tribes. This resulted in retrenchment on the frontiers. A fateful raid marked the turning point. In May, 1871, a party of more than one hundred Kiowas, Comanches, and others left Fort Sill and crossed into Texas. Led by Satank, Satanta, and Big Tree, they took up positions on the Salt Creek Prairie. A group of heavily armed white soldiers was allowed to pass unmolested; unknown to the Indians, the military escort was for General Sherman, who was conducting an inspection tour of Texas.
The next group of whites to pass was a wagon train belonging to a freighting company. The Indians swept down upon the wagons and attacked. They killed the wagon master and seven teamsters and looted the wagons, then returned immediately to the reservation. The Salt Creek Massacre, also known as the Warren Wagon Train Raid, would have far-reaching consequences for Texas Indians. Because of the raid, General Sherman developed a policy of all-out offensive against the Plains Indians. The next few years would be bloody indeed.
By 1875, most of the remaining tribes had surrendered to the US army. In 1887, a new US policy was adopted to destroy the remaining tribal organizations. By the beginning of the 20th century, the whites could move freely without any ambush from Indians or any tribal communities. 21st Century-The Texan Policy Today Through the years, generations of Texans have survived bloody battles, local and federal governments. From the time the Republicans have taken over the state the current crop of politicians know the skin of their onions quite well. Texan economy has bloomed despite arid lands.
What has worked in the favor of the state is the individual power (remember The Austin Power). The Texan businessperson knows which politician to support for maximum benefits. Racism has been overtaken by a powerful urge to put the state on the political, economical and social map of USA. The lone ranger still knows when to strike and how.
1. Handbook of Texas Online, s. v. TEXAS STATE ARCHIVES, http://www. tsha. utexas. edu/handbook/online/articles/TT/lct6. html (accessed May 1, 2006). 2. KOCH LENA CLARA , THE FEDERAL INDIAN POLICY IN TEXAS, 1845-1860CHAPTER IV THE RESERVATION SYSTEM AND ITS RESULTS. 3. KOCH LENA CLARA, THE FEDERAL INDIAN POLICY IN TEXAS, 1845-1860 CHAPTER III THE RANGERS AND FRONTIER PROTECTION . 4. http://www. texasbeyondhistory. net/forts/indians. html(accessed May 1, 2006). 5. http://www. tsha. utexas. edu/publications/journals/shq/online/v029/n1/article_6. html (accessed May 1, 2006). 6. http://www. economist. com/displaystory. cfm? story_id=1487487(accessed May 1, 2006). 7. http://www. frommers. com/destinations/sanantonio/0027020044. html(accessed May 1, 2006).