Tea is created by using the leaves of a plantknown as Camellis sinensis. This plant is native tomainland China, South and Southeast Asia, but it istoday cultivated across the world in tropical andsubtropical regions. It is an evergreen shrub orsmall tree that is usually trimmed to below 2 m(6.6 ft) when cultivated for its leaves. It has astrong taproot. The flowers are yellow-white, 2.5-4cm (0.98-1.6 in) in diameter, with 7 to 8 petals. 2. Tea-drinking can be traced back to the 10thcentury BC in China before it was spread toKorea and Japan. Basically, this drink is madeby brewing tea leaves to create an extract. Dueto the chlorophylls and other pigments in theleaves, the extract commonly appears with abrown color.
6. OBJECTIVESThis research is being done to find outthe potency of the extract of theleaves from the the plant Camellissinensis as an ink. Nowadays, ink is apigment in a liquid or paste form usedas colorants and dyes. Also, they arebecoming more and more expensivebecause of their increasing purposes. 7. Our research aims to produce thisink as a cheaper alternative tothose commercial ones. Comparedto the ink we are aiming to create,commercially produced inks aretoxic and can behazardous to apersons health once there isinappropriate contact with it. 8. To match with the color andconsistency of other inks, wewill be adding other substances,specifically vinegar andcornstarch, whichare commonand easy to find.
9. STATEMENT OF THEPROBLEMGenerally, this investigatory project aimsto find out if tea bags can be used tocreate an ink.Specifically, it aims to answer thefollowing questions:a. Can vinegar strengthen the color ofthe product, ink?b. Can cornstarch contribute toachieving the right consistency of theink?c. Are the processes boiling andstraining efficient in taking the extractout of the tea bags? 10. HYPOTHESES Extracts taken from tea bags have the potential to be made into an ink. If vinegar and cornstarch are added to the mixture, then the product would have a stronger color and a thicker consistency than
11. SIGNIFICANCE OF THESTUDYThis investigatory project will benefit us byproducing an alternative for other inks.These other manufactured inks nowadayscome quite expensive prices, but since thematerials to be used in our project arecommon and easy to find, you will bespending less money. Also, no harmfulchemicals will be used in making our ink.Therefore, it is non-toxic compared tocommercially sold inks which have thetendencies of causing harm to ones healthand to the environment. 12. SCOPE ANDLIMITATIONSOur research and experiments areonly limited to making a simple ink asa colorant. It does not include inksthat are used in machines such asprinters, copiers, etc. Also, our studyincludes the effects of vinegar andcornstarch on the product. To haveaccurate observations, we will becreating two set-ups: an ink withoutvinegar and cornstarch and one withvinegar and cornstarch.
13. REVIEW OF RELATEDLITERATUREThe history of Chinese inks can be tracedback to the 18th century BC, with theutilization of natural plant dyes, animal,and mineral inks based on such materialsas graphite that were ground with waterand applied with ink brushes.The India ink used in ancient India since atleast the 4ath century BC wascalled masi, and was made of burnt bones,tar, pitch, and other substances appliedwith sharp pointed needle . 14. Saffron is well known as the source of atruly brilliant if rather fugitive yellow andthere is evidence of its use, both as acolorant and medicine, in the Greek andPersian civilizations of the same period.Indian skill in vegetable dyeing andpainting reached a high point in the twocenturies from 1600 to 1800 AD, whenthe painting and resist dyeing of cottoncloth known to us as Chintz became thebasis of the largest trade in textiles thatthe world had ever seen.
15. The Strasbourg manuscript, of anearlier period, also describes the use ofa whole range of plants used in themanufacture of inks and water-colours.Later we see developments invegetable block-printing inks in 17thand 18th century Japan where it isinteresting to note that some colourswere actually leached from previouslydyed cloth. 16. Early historical accounts of tea areunclear, for the Chinese character fortea had not been standardized, andseveral other Chinese charactersappear in books referring very likelyto the same plant, Camellia Sinensis,what we now call tea.
17. Tea dyeing is an easy way to mutefabrics or give them an older, antiquedlook. Tea stains the fibers and gives asemi-permanent dull brown dirtytone to the whole piece. It is usedwhen you want to antique a crafttextile such as a doll dress or smallquilt.Griffiths uses the medium of tea andink (sometimes graphite, vodka,whiskey, and others) to create thesepieces. 18. Tea and ink as a medium hasbecome a trademark for Griffiths inthe art world. 19. METHODOLOGY
20. SET-UP A Experimental Set-up
21. MATERIALS7 teabags 1 1/2 cups of water 1 tablespoon of vinegar Cornstarch Strainer and fork Bottle 22. PROCEDURE Place the 7 teabags in 1 ½ cups of boiling water. 23. Create the tea for 6-8 minutes.
24. Remove the teabags from the boiling water. Use a strainer and a fork to remove all of the extracts. 25. While stirring the tea, add a tablespoon of vinegar. 26. Continue to stir it. Add as much dissolved cornstarch as you need to have your desired consistency. 27. Remove it from the heat and let it cool. When done, store in a bottle. 28. SET-UP B Controlled Set-up
29. MATERIALS 7 teabags 1 1/2 cups of water Strainer and fork Bottle 30. PROCEDURES Place the 7 teabags in 1 ½ cups of boiling water. 31. Create the tea for 6-8 minutes. 32. Remove the teabags from the boiling water. Use a strainer and a fork to remove all of the extracts. 33. Remove it from the heat and let it cool. When done, store in a bottle. 34. FINDINGS: During the procedure itself, we have observed that boiling is an effective process of extraction. Right after we have placed the tea bags in the boiling water, the change of color is very noticeable. During this step the mixture had a very strong smell from the tea. While following the procedures for set-up A which included the placing of vinegar, there was no immediate change in color as we expected. Instead, the vinegars effect was seen when we tried to paint the two inks on paper. While applying the ink on paper, it was harder to use ink B because its consistency was very watery. Thus it became runny and
35. After letting them dry, it was seenthat ink A had a darker color while inkBs writings faded. 36. DISCUSSION OFRESULTSOur hypothesis which states that tea bagshave the potential to be made into an ink ifvinegar and cornstarch is added is provencorrect. We had two setups which wereSetup A that has vinegar and Setup B thathas no vinegar. Vinegar is mainly a diluteaqueous solution of acetic acid which isan important reagent and industrialchemical, mainly used in the production ofcellulose acetate.
37. A cellulose acetate is used as filmbase in photography and a filmbase is a transparent substancewhich acts as a support mediumfor the photosensitive emulsionthat lies atop it, its base generallyaccounts for the vast majority ofthe thickness of any given filmstock. 38. The addition of vinegar and cornstarchin making an ink can result to athicker consistency and consistentcolor which is better for the usage ofthe ink. Our observations prove thatadding vinegar to the mixture can bemade into an ink because withoutthe vinegar there would be noconsistency on the mixture and itwill be less seen.
Tea bags can be used to create an ink. Vinegar can strengthen the color of the product, ink. Cornstarch effectively contributes to achieving to the right consistency of the ink. The processes boiling and straining are efficient in taking the extract out of the tea bags. 40. SUMMARIZATION There are many different kinds of ink. In our experiment we will use tea bags as the main component of our ink. Having two different set-ups will provide the chance to compare the colors and consistencies.
Cornstarch is an efficient additive to have the right consistency of the product. Also vinegar is also efficient, though there is no obvious change in color, it was seen that it gave the ink a consistent color whether wet or dry. We therefore conclude that one cancreate an improvised ink using theextract from tea bags. This will bevery convenient and cheap becausethe ingredients to be used arecommonly found around the house.Also, the said processes, boilingand straining, are efficient and canbe easily done.
Based on the conducted experiment,we recommend the following forfurther improvements. To have betterresults of extraction, suggest thatthere would be longer minutes ofboiling. We also recommend that oneshould make use of a large amount ofcorn starch, a thickening agent, so theapplication of ink would be doneeasier. Instead of directly placing your desiredamount of cornstarch in the mixtureabove low fire, it would be better todissolve it first in cold or warm water toavoid forming lumps. We still recommendthe usage of vinegar because of theresults we have observed. Depending onthe availability, one can also useprocessed soybean oil as a drying oil.This is used as a base for printing inksand oil paints.
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