Damodar River-The Damodar River originates in the Palamau district of Jharkhand near Chandwa village. The origin of Damodar River is in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region of India. The river flows through the states of Jharkhand and West Bengal for nearly five hundred and ninety two kilometers and then merges with the Hooghly River, which is in the south west of Kolkata. The Damodar River has a number of tributaries and distributaries. They are Barakar, Konar, Guaia,Jamania, Usri, Bokaro, Haharo, Khadia and Bhera. The Barakar is the most important and the only tributary of the Damodar River.
This River arises near Padma in Hazaribagh district, flows through Jharkhand,and meets the Damodar River in Dishergarh in West Bengal. The river used to flow through Bengal in yesteryears, from west to east course and then it joined the Hooghly River at a spot near Kalna. Gradually, the river has changed its course and now most of the water in its lower reaches falls into the Mundeswari River. The Mundeswari River combines with other rivers and ultimately most of the water of the Damodar River flows into the Rupnarayan River. The residual water flows through the Damodar into the Hooghly, located at the south of Kolkata.
Earlier the Damodar River was referred to as River of Sorrow in Bengal as it used to flood the Bardhaman, Hooghly, Howrah and Medinipur districts of West Bengal, which led to huge destruction of life and property. Even today the floods sometimes distress the lower Damodar Valley but the chaos it brought about in earlier years. However, after building the dams this flood factor has become a matter of history. Pollution of Damodar River is one of the grave concerns of the Bengal authorities. The Damodar is the most polluted river in India today due the several industries that have sprouted on its mineral-rich banks.
There are too many coal-based industries that are been build the Damodar valley. Other industries are mostly government-owned coal washeries, coke oven plants, which are the countrys major iron and steel plants and thermal power plants. Zinc, glass and cement plants also cover wide areas along the riverbanks. The overburden of mine effluents, fly ash, oil, toxic metals and coal dust caused the pollution. Defective mining practices, outdated processing practices and lack of proper maintenance were compounded by corruption, inadequate pollution control and a state pollution control board that did nothing.
The people living in the basin are slowly being poisoned because the Damodar and its tributaries is the only source of drinking water for most people living in the area. However, the governmental measures have brought significant changes in the status of the river for the past years. The geology of Damodar River indicate heavy metal concentrations at various zones of the river. At two sites in near mining areas, the coarser particles show similar or even higher heavy metal concentrations than the finer ones. Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) is based on the Tenesse Valley Authority of the United States of America.
This project benefits the states of West Bengal and Bihar. An important feature of this project is the 692 metres long and 11. 6 metres high barrage constructed across the Damodar at Durgapur. Panchet dam, Farakka Barrage, Tilaiya Dam and Konar Dam are the dams at River Damodar. The tributary of Damodar River is one of the most ferocious and voluminous rivers of Eastern India River Barakar, which begins near Padma in Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand and flows for 225 km across the northern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau.
GANGA The Ganges River is held sacred by Hindus and is worshipped in its personified formas the Goddess Ganga. The Ganga and its tributaries drain a large and fertile basin with an area of about one million square kilometres. The Ganges has a number of tributaries which are mentioned below: Yamuna River Yamuna River, also known as the Jumna, is a major river of the northern India. Yamuna River has a total length of about 1,376 km (855 mi). The Yamunas source is at the Yamunotri glacier near Banderpoonch peaks, in the Mussourie range of the lower Himalayas at an elevation of about 6387 meters above sea level in district Uttarakashi.
This river, flows in a southerly direction through the Himalayan foothills, onto the northern Indian plain, and a series of valleys for about 200Kms, along the Uttar Pradesh-Haryana state border. At this point, the Eastern and Western Yamuna canals are fed from the river. Son River One of the largest southern tributaries of the Ganges is the Son River of central India. The Son River originates in the state of Chhattisgarh in the east direction of the origin of Narmada River. It then flows in the north-northwest direction through Madhya Pradesh before turning in the east direction where it meets the Kaimur range.
The river starts flowing in the parallel direction of the Kaimur range in the east-northeast direction through Uttar Pradesh and Bihar and joins the Ganges just above Patna, the capital of Bihar. Mahananda River The Mahananda River is a major confluent of the Ganges in eastern part of India. The river originates from the extreme north of West Bengal from thehills of Darjeeling. It then flows southwards through the fertile agricultural area I in Bihar and enters West Bengal. The river then flows in the southeast direction I in to Bangladesh.
I Kosi River I Kosi River one of the main rivers in Bihar and a prominent tributary of the Ganges, originates in the Himalayas. Along with its tributaries, the Kosi River traverses along parts of Tibet, including the Mount Everest region and also one third of the eastern part of Nepal. The river has shifted its course from east to west about 120 kilometres in the last two hundred years. Gandak River Gandak is also known as the Kali Gandaki River and Narayani after the confluence with Trisuli in Nepal. Gandak River is a tributary of the Ganga or Ganges River.
It is one of the major rivers in Nepal and India. It is a north bank tributary of the Ganga in India. It rises at 7620 m in Tibet near the Nepal border and overlooks the Dhaulagiri. It is distinguished for the deep gorge across which it flows and for a large hydroelectric facility in Nepal. This river also provides water for a major Irrigation cum Hydroelectric power facility at the Indo-Nepal border at Valmikinagar. The river has a total catchment area of 46,300 sqkm out of which 7620 sqkm is located in India. The Gandaki River is mentioned in the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata.
Ghaghara River Ghaghara River, also called the Gogra or Ghagra, Nepali Kauriala or Manchu or the Karnali, literally means holy water from the sacred mountain. The term Karnali also means Turquoise River and is a trans-boundary perennial river that originates on the Tibetan plateau. The Karnali is called Kung-chiao Ho in Chinese. This river near Manasarowar cuts through the Himalayas in Nepal on its way to the convergence with the Sarda River at Brahmaghat in India where it forms the Ghaghara River. The Ghaghara River is a major left bank tributary of the Ganges.
It is the longest and largest river in Nepal with a length of around 507 km and one of the largest affluent of the Ganges. Mahakali River River Mahakali flows between the border of Nepal and India. This river forms the western international border between Nepal and India and it originates from the Greater Himalayas at Kalapaani. The river flows down from a height of 3600 m, in the Pithoragarh District of Uttarakhand. Eventually, it joins with the Gori Ganga at Jauljibi area. This river again joins the Saryu River at Pancheshwar. The vicinity