In the article, the author tries to indicate that rather than obliterate the concept of geographical divisions, globalization enhances the regional entities currently existing in society to the point that certain global city-regions are created and are faced with the challenges of coping with the mentioned globalization trend (Scott 2001). Article Summary
One of the many fruits of globalization is the creation of wider political-economic regional units called global city-regions (Scott 2001, p. 813). In the so-called city-regions, new political and economic structures arise. Due to the many transformations and modifications that have happened during the centuries, a new system has emerged via globalization. Such condition of society creates four aspects that should be addressed by the new civilization.
These four aspects namely are: (1) the increasing large quantities of economic activity can now occur in the form of long-distance as well as inter-border relationships between regional units, (2) the number of established multinational organizations is ever-increasing to answer such economic pressures, (3) previous regulatory functions of the national administrations are now being performed by regional units, and (4) the revival of past economic and political regions have sprouted creating new geographical boundaries (Scott 2001).
The fourth aspect discussed by Scott was then further elaborated to give emphasis to its importance and significant consequences. It is in this elaboration of the fourth aspect that the concept of city-regions is introduced. The institution of globalization is therefore the initiator of the necessity of implicitly founding city-regions. Upon verifying the fact that global city-regions exist, the author now tries to analyze the political and economic structures that could possibly be established to answer the needs of the new city-regions.
Two budding political principles thus appear; the first is a neo-liberal political view. In this view, government interference is at a minimum while economic activity is maximized through market organization (Scott 2001). This view is remarked as a risky one and thus should not be the structure that could be applied to developing city-regions. The second political principle which the author recommends is that of renascent social democracy which is also called the social market approach (Scott 2001).
Such approach is appropriate for economic efficiency and at the same time can selectively commence intervention whenever necessary (Scott 2001). Furthermore, democracy will be an effective means of addressing the social and political tensions of a diverse population which is apparent in city-regions where most people try to earn a living, mainly due to its reputation as a site for capitalism and globalization (Scott 2001). As a conclusion of the article, the author tries to propose a new definition for citizen and citizenship.
Since the new geographical partitions throughout the globe will be like those of the city-regions, new concepts on citizenship thus surface. Citizens will no longer be bound by birthright to a particular geographical location but rather becoming a citizen will be based on the functional contributions an individual possesses. Furthermore, citizenship will take on a whole new level. Individuals in the ever-increasing mobile world can freely obtain the title of citizenship as many as possible depending on the movements of each person as one travels through different city-regions situated in the vast world (Scott 2001).
In the end, the author shares his afterthoughts regarding the subject matter. Similar to the varying consequences of globalization, the emergence of city-regions in society also has diverse outcomes. Summarily, though the emergence of such global city-regions revives the geographical entities and the need for distinctiveness, its materialization also poses new and fresh political and economic problems and challenges (Scott 2001). Throughout the article, the author tries to back-up his arguments and deductions as well as his predictions by citing different outside references.
His use of examples such as naming international organizations and cities considered city-regions in the world strengthens the thesis of his article. Information cited from other authors also imparts the well-researched foundation of the authors arguments. Organizational Analysis The organization and structure of the article is quite impressive. The author uses deductive as well as inductive reasoning in presenting and defending his thesis statement and arguments. The style of writing is also well-organized.
This is evident on the flow of the whole article. At the opening of the article, the author communicates what he believes is going on in the society. He incorporates new ideas to explain what has come to pass, thus the use of the term global city-regions. Following his conceptual presentation, he proves the certainty of his inferences. To give significance to his article, he then recommends solutions and steps that can be taken to resolve the issues at hand. Furthermore, he offers the readers explanations to the current situation.
In the end, he lays down his conclusions and deductions only after weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the solutions to the issues. His effort to refer back to the effects of globalization in geography is a very competent way of leaving a lasting thought to the readers. Thus, by doing so, he creates an appealing atmosphere whose effect is persuading and convincing. Furthermore, the urgency in his article is apparent by his use of situational events. It makes the reader feel the need to address the matter at hand.
Personal Analysis Although the article is exceedingly academic and formal, the ideas presented by the author are quite revolutionary, thus making them interesting. It is enjoyable in a sense that it offers innovative concepts and principles not just in regional geography and globalization, but also on economics and politics. The principle of city-regions is a noteworthy contribution to the field of geography. Furthermore, his defense of the existence and importance of the study of geography brought new light to the study.
This is the most striking effort the author has produced. By addressing the argument that geography is becoming obsolete, he established geographys status in the academe and the sciences. Moreover, by his struggle to affirm the relevance of geography, he constructed a new concept in geography. In summary, he renewed the necessity to study geography, particularly in relation to that of the current worldwide condition of society. Relevance and Conclusion In connection to urban political geography, the article is actually all about it.
The focus of the article is that of globalization which is a form of urbanization. The author thus tries to give a glimpse of the concerns of urban political geography. This is achieved by the by discussion of political principles that are appropriate for the newly-discovered global city-regions. By generating an image of regional geography, the author imparts an understanding of the subject. The article however has not yet been tackled in classroom discussions since it will be talked about in later topics in the course of the class.
Scott reveals new conceptual geography that not only deals with regional and physical geography but also with political geography in the midst of globalization. Through conversing about the matter, the author revitalized the significance of studying geography and the varying concerns it deals with.
Martin, G. J. & Thompson, J. H. (2006). Geography. Microsoft Encarta 2007 [CD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation. Scott, A. J. (2001). Globalization and the Rise of City-Regions. European Planning Studies 9 (7): 813-826.