Electric motorcycle Essay

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Nowadays, motorcycles are extremely used in Asian urban areas as in Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Southern China. Among 23 million residents in Taiwan, there are around 15 million registered motorcycles which is equivalent to nearly one motorcycle for every adult person (Chunto Tso, and Chang S. -Y. , 2003). Being the most widely chosen vehicle, Taiwan is a place marked by intensive motorcycle use. By definition, a motorcycle also called a motorbike, bike or moto, is a two or three wheeled motor vehicle (Vittore Cossalter, 2006). Motorcycle history begins in the second half of the 19th century.

It is descended from the safety bicycle, a bicycle with front and rear wheels of the same size and a pedal crank mechanism to drive the rear wheel. The first motorcycle powered by a steam engine was built in 1868 by Sylvester Howard Roper, an inventor from Boston, Massachusetts, United States. From this invention, the worlds first gasoline driven motorcycle was created in 1885 by Gottlieb Daimler, a German engineer (Wise David Burgess, 2007). Since that time until today, many motorcycle companies around the world such as Honda, Suzuki, Kawasaki, Yamaha, started to manufacture their own motorcycle.

Because of the limited space, population density and the tropical climate, motorcycles have become the most popular mode transportation in Taiwan. In proportion to its density and the number of motorcycles used, it is the country having the highest motorcycle density in the world. Several factors lead to the extensive use of motorcycles in Taiwan such as short daily trip distance, deficiency of parking spaces, high population etc. That is why most of travelers especially students choose motorcycles as their primary means of transportation for daily activities (Chiu Y.C. , Tzeng G. H. 1999).

Moreover, motorcycles present many advantages. In fact, they are very convenient for getting around the densely populated streets of Taiwan. Students can go anywhere they want without worrying about missing the train or taking the right bus or MRT. Even if public transportations are developed in some areas, taking the train can take more time to get to the destination compared to riding a motorcycle. It provides freedom to the students. Compared to cars, motorcycles are very affordable to buy and its repairing cost is cheaper.

However, despite the fact that it presents attractive advantages, a motorcycle also raises drawbacks. Taiwan is packed with people driving cars, buses, trucks and other vehicles on the road. Because of this intensive use of vehicles, driving a motorcycle is dangerous. But most of all, in Taiwan, the urban areas are suffering from the air pollution problem due to the condensed population and high motor vehicle density. Air pollution in Taiwan is rapidly increasing to dangerous levels. With only 23 million residents, Taiwan is the country which emits the most of CO2, holding 1 percent of the global pollution.

The country has been ranked as the first in the growth of carbon dioxide emissions (Chang P. -L. , Lee K. -C. , and Su W. -H. , 2013). Around 20 percent is contributed by motorcycles and scooters, whose emissions are worse than cars. Thereby, controlling motorcycles CO2 emission levels is the key to improving the air quality and electric motorcycles seem to be an appealing solution. In fact, an electric motorcycle consists of a battery that provides energy, an electric motor that drives the wheels and a controller that regulates the energy flow to the motor (Carl Vogel, 1967).

It provides low noise level, high energy efficiency and zero-emission. Because it is using electricity to power the motor and move the vehicle, electric motorcycle contributes in reducing the dependence on gasoline and so improving the air quality. In order to struggle against the development of pollution, Taiwanese government agencies are taking some measures and implement an Electric Motorcycle Development Action plan (Environmental Protection Administration, R. O. C. , 1998). In fact, Taiwan is one of the worlds major producers of engine motorcycles. There are over 18 million motorcycles sold in Asia.

Taiwan is now making an effort to apply new technology for developing zero-emission motorcycles (Chunto Tso, Chang S. -Y. , 2003). They decide to provide a subsidy for purchasing electric motorcycles and try to push the new potential buyers, essentially students, to purchase an electric motorcycle. In fact, students are essentially those who tend to buy a motorcycle that will be indispensable in their daily activities. Because of this, our group is motivated to research the different factors which affect students purchasing intention on electric motorcycle in Taiwan. 1. 2. Purpose of the study and Research Question

Through this study, the purpose will be: To understand how price affects the demand on electric motorcycles. To know how electric motorcycles performance affects students purchasing intention. Thereby, the study is performed to answer the question How price and performance affect students purchasing intention on electric motorcycles in Taiwan? 1. 3. Scope of the study This study is limited to Taiwanese students. 1. 4. Expected result Our expected result from this research is to understand the influence and the significant relation of these factors on students purchasing intention on electric motorcycle in Taiwan.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Our research is about Factors affecting students purchasing intention on electric motorcycles in Taiwan supported by several literature reviews that are related to two main factors which are price and performance. These articles gave us a lot of contributions to our research proposal as the information, knowledge and research framework are based on these previous researches. 2. 1. Purchasing intention The purchasing intention can be defined as the possibility of a consumer to purchase a particular product. The higher the purchase intention is the higher the purchase probability will be.

Purchase intention is the subjective probability of buying a particular product or brand (Schiffman L. G. , and Kanuk L. L. , 2007). It can be influenced by several factors, having a more or less importance on it. 2. 2. Price Price is unquestionably one of the most important marketplace elements. The persuasive influence of price is due, in part, to the fact that price is present in all purchase situations and, at a minimum, represents to all consumers the amount of economic expense that must be sacrificed in order to engage in a given purchase transaction.

Thus, price can be defined as the amount of money that must be given up in exchange for a good or service. Therefore, price is an important element in purchasing intention. In fact, higher prices can negatively affect purchase probabilities. However, many consumers also perceive price as a signal to indicate product quality. In this case, price has a positive role: higher prices positively affect purchase probabilities. Price has a dual-role and can have a direct negative effect on purchase intention and an indirect positive effect on purchase intentions via product quality perceptions (D.R. Lichtenstein, N. M. Ridgway and R. G. Netemeyer, 1993).

In this research, we will understand how price affects students purchasing intention on electric motorcycles. 2. 2. 1. Electric motorcycles price Concerning electric motorcycles price, there are several purchase costs including Battery (Pb-acid), production cost, production retail price. In total, an electric motorcycle costs NT$ 56, 000 while the figure for Gasoline motorcycle is NT$ 35, 000. However, the operating cost for electric motorcycle is NT$ 1, 32/km compared to NT$ 2, 43 for gasoline motorcycle.

In long term, using an electric motorcycle is cheaper than using a gasoline motorcycle (Chiu Y. C. , Tzeng G. H. , 1999). Other accessories were supported with another US$ 60 to US$ 75, depending on the type and other aspects (Chunto Tso, and Chang S. -Y. , 2003). 2. 2. 2. Governments policies Being one of the most pollutant countries, the Taiwanese government has proposed several low-carbon environmental measures and is now making an effort to apply new technology for developing zero-emissions motorcycles (Chang P. -L. , Lee K. -C. , and Su W. -H. , 2013; Chunto Tso, and Chang S. -Y., 2003).

According to the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), several policies are executed such as Electric Motorcycle Development Action plan and the promotion of electric motorcycles through different subsidies. The main objective of the EPA is to encourage the public to use electric motorcycles and to gradually weed out the highly polluting engine motorcycles (Chunto Tso, and Chang S. -Y. , 2003). In fact, according to the policies, transforming a two-stroke motorcycle with high-polluting into an electrical motorcycle is entitled to a subsidy of NT$ 3, 000 dollars.

The extra purchase of electrical motorcycle is also entitled to a further subsidy of NT$ 8, 000 to 11, 000 dollars. And several local governments also provide additional subsidies between NT$ 2, 000 to 15, 000 dollars (Chang P. -L. , Lee K. -C. , and Su W. -H. , 2013). Thus, consumers can be able to purchase electric motorcycles at almost half of original price. In 2012, adding measures were implemented in favor to these products. In fact, electric motorcycles are exempted from licensing taxes, parking fees and fuel taxes (EPA, Executive Yuan, R.O. C. , 1998).

Thanks to these benefits on purchasing an electric motorcycle, the governments policies are significantly related with the consumers purchase intention (Chen J. A. , 2012). 2. 3. Performance There were several notable technology features of electric motorcycle: Under normal use conditions, a battery should be replaced after 300 times charging/discharging cycles, equivalent to a 5-year operation. The estimated traveling distance of a motorcycle is about 15,000 km in such a period of time.

The operating cost of an electric motorcycle, including the electricity, battery depreciation and regular maintenance, is approximately NT$ 1, 16/km (Chiu Y. C. , Tzeng G. H. , 1999). According to Duann L. S. , Chou H. Y. , and Wang C. C. (2001) studies, consumers could recharge their electric motorcycle at home with cheapest fee, followed by charging at public station (specified as base). Recharging can be done at night so the long time of recharging may not be awkward. According to the several studies, performance is one of the essential elements considered by consumers, influencing their purchasing intention.

2. 4. Correlation between price, performance, and purchase intention Purchasing intention can be difficult to manifest as consumers are continually making choices among a large variety of products. Consumers lack of full information about prices of goods makes the purchasing intention even more difficult to manifest (Nelson P. , 1970). Through the different studies, we can notice that price has an effect on the purchasing intention. In fact, it is shown that governments policies are associated with the consumers purchase intention.

In fact, special half price discounts for students as a scholarship assists needy families and motivate more students to use affordable green products such as electric motorcycles. In addition, if the governments and enterprises provide monthly charging services, the consumers will feel more convenient to use the product so their purchasing intention will increase. The financial help given to producers in research and development will allow producing electric motorcycles on a larger scale with lower costs. Thus, the consumers will be able to buy electric motorcycle at a lower price than or similar to the traditional motorcycles (Chang P.-L. , Lee K. -C. , and Su W. -H. , 2013).

Through their study, Chiu Y. C. , and Tzeng G. H. (1999) showed the trade-off between purchasing price and speed performance. In fact, the purchasing price was set to NT$ 30, 000 for a speed of 40km/h and the relationship indicates that an increase in maximum speed by 1km/h is equivalent to an increase in vehicle purchase price of approximately NT$ 2, 300 for males and NT$ 1, 900 for females. We can notice that males are willing to pay more than females in exchange for an increase in maximum speed. Concerning the cruise ranger, it also has a relationship with price.

Thus, many consumers, especially males, considerate performance as a vital element because they are willing to pay a higher price to have a more performing electric motorcycle. As a fact, performance also affects the consumers purchasing intention and decision on these products. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter describes the research methodology, including the research design, the theoretical framework and also the research hypotheses. 3. 1. Research Design In this research, we would like to study the purchasing intention of Taiwanese students on electric motorcycles by using a quantitative research method.

While writing the literature review, the first step of the research was to use the preliminary interviews done by the different articles to survey the factors that can affect the purchasing intention of students on electric motorcycles. For the next step, we used these factors to create our questionnaire which will be our major tool in investigating the phenomenon. And then, we collected the data and we analyzed it by using hypothesis testing method to explain the relation that can occur between independent and dependent variables. 3. 1. 1. Scope of research population Our research is targeting the Taiwanese students.

3. 1. 2. Scope of research matter The scope of this research is to analyze the influence exercised by the price and the performance on students purchasing intention on electric motorcycles. It is also to measure the level of the influence. 3. 2. Research Framework Through the literature review process, we have discovered that two major variables have probably an impact on the purchasing intention of students regarding electric motorcycles. In fact, price and performance are the two variables we are going to experienced in order to prove that there is a relationship between these variables and the purchasing intention.

Previous studies demonstrate that price has a significant positive relationship with young adults purchase intention (Chew at al. , 2012). According to V. A. Zeithaml (1998), price and performance of a product often influence consumers purchasing intention. The theoretical framework is shown as below. Figure 3. 1. : Conceptual Framework 3. 2. 1. Dependent variable 3. 2. 1. 1. Purchasing intention Purchase intention can be defined as a plan to purchase a particular good or service in the future (Siahaan, Pangemanan, and Pandowo, 2014).

In our research, it is really essential to understand and analyze the purchasing intention of students on electric motorcycles. In fact, the purchasing intention is the crucial step to make the action of purchasing electric motorcycle happens. Through the questionnaire, the five-point scale model will allow us to be able to evaluate the degree of purchase intention by examining variables such as the possibility of purchasing, wanting to purchase, and considering to purchase (V. A. Zeithaml, 1988). Table 3. 1. : Dependent Variable (Purchasing Intention) Dependent Variable Questions

Level of Measurement Purchasing Intention 1. I will buy an electric motorcycle in the following months. Five-point scale: 5 = Strongly Agree 4 = Agree 3 = Neutral 2 = Disagree 1 = Strongly Disagree 2. Electric motorcycle will be my first choice if I plan to buy a motorcycle. 3. I am interesting on buying an electric motorcycle. 4. I will recommend my friends to buy an electric motorcycle. 3. 2. 2. Independent variables 3. 2. 2. 1. Price Price can be defined as a value that will purchase a finite quantity, weight, or other measure of a good or service (Siahaan, Pangemanan, and Pandowo, 2014).

Purchase intention tends to be reduced when the actual price on products is higher than acceptable price range and vice versa (Dodds, 1991). The questionnaire based on a five-point scale will enable us to know the degree of importance given to the price variable. Knowing the degree, the purchase intention will be more or less performed by students. Table 3. 2. : Independent Variable (Price) Independent Variable Questions Level of Measurement Price 1. The price of electric motorcycle is expensive. Five-point scale: 5 = Strongly Agree 4 = Agree 3 = Neutral 2 = Disagree 1 = Strongly Disagree 2.

The price of electric motorcycle is reasonable. 3. Promotions on electric motorcycle by retailers are interesting. 4. Electric motorcycles have a competitive price with gasoline motorcycles. 3. 2. 2. 2. Performance According to Steenkamp, Batra, and Alden (2002), the purchase decision of the consumers results from the perceived value on product or service. And most of consumers use the function of a product to measure its value: For instance, the performance. Therefore, performance has an influence on the purchasing intention. In fact, a performing electric motorcycle will tend to have a positive effect on the purchasing intention.

Conversely, an underperformed electric motorcycle will tend to have a negative effect on the purchasing intention. The questionnaire has been developed based on electric motorcycles different features of performance (velocity, stability, driving capability, sound, and body design). Table 3. 3. : Independent Variable (Performance) Independent Variable Questions Level of Measurement Performance 1. Electric motorcycles maximum speed is high. Five-point scale: 5 = Strongly Agree 4 = Agree 3 = Neutral 2 = Disagree 1 = Strongly Disagree 2. Electric motorcycles are not noisy. 3. Electric motorcycles are easy to handle. 4.

Electric motorcycles designs are attractive. 3. 3. Research Hypotheses We will be exploring various hypotheses in order to understand how each independent variable can explain the dependent variable. Based on the research objective, we created the hypotheses shown as follow: Price: H01: The price doesnt affect students purchasing intention on electric motorcycles. H11: The price affects students purchasing intention on electric motorcycles. Performance: H02: The performance doesnt affect students purchasing intention on electric motorcycles. H12: The performance affects students purchasing intention on electric motorcycles.

REFERENCES Carl Vogel (1967). Build your own electric motorcycle, p. 20. 23. Chang P. -L. , Lee K. -C. , Su W. -H. (October 2013). The Impacts of Environmental Education and Product Cognition on Consumers Purchase Intention on Lithium Battery-Powered Electrical Motorcycles. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), Volume 3, Issue 4. Chew, J. , Q. , Lee, J. , H. , Lim, C. , T. , Loke, W. , W. , Wong, T. , K. (2012). Exploring the factors affecting purchase intention of smartphone: A study of young adults in Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Perak Campus, Malaysia.

Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Faculty Of Business And Finance Department Of Marketing, p. 1-100. Chen J. A. (2012). The Research of the Bio-Hydrogen Stationary Fuel Cell Power Systems consumers purchase intention Taichung City residents in apartment building as an Example. Faculty of Science Management Working Paper Series, Feng Chia University, Taiwan. Chiu Y. C. , Tzeng G. H. (9 January 1999). The market acceptance of electric motorcycles in Taiwan experience through a stated preference analysis. Transportation Research Part D 4, 127-146. Chunto Tso, Chang S. -Y. (2003).

A viable niche market fuel cell scooters in Taiwan. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 28, 747-762. Dodds, W. B. (1991). In Search of Value: How Price and Store Name Information Influence Buyers Product Perceptions. The journal of services marketing, 5 (3), p. 27-36. Duann L. S. , Chou H. Y. , Wang C. C. (October 2001). The factors affecting the demand for electric motorcycle. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 4-No. l. Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), Executive Yuan, R. O. C. (March 1998). Electric motorcycle development action plan.

Lichtenstein D. R. , Ridgway N. M. and Netemeyer R. G. (May 1993). Price perceptions and consumer shopping behavior: A field study. Journal of Marketing Research Vol. XXX, 234-45. Nelson P. (1970). Information and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Political Economy. Schiffman L. G. , and Kanuk L. L. (2007). Consumer Behavior, 7th ed. , Prentice Hall International, Inc. Siahaan M. C. , Pangemanan S. S. , Pandowo M. (2014). Price, Brand Equity, And Perceived Quality On Purchase Intention Of Honda Scooter Motorcycle In Manado. Journal EMBA, Vol. 2 No. 1, Hal. 441-449.

Steenkamp J. B., Batra R. , and Alden D. L. (2002). How Perceived Brand Global ness Creates Brand Value? Working Paper Series, Social Science Research Network, Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP), Inc, Harvard Business School. V. A. Zeithaml (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 2-22. Vittore, Cossalter (2 October 2006). Motorcycle Dynamics (Second Edition), p. 1. 2. Wise David Burgess (2007). The past 1800s: First motorcycle, the history and future of Motorcycles and motorcycling.

APPENDICES APPENDIX A TIME TABLE ACTIVITY ESTIMATE TIMEFRAME Background and Motivation, Purpose of the Research and Research question 2 weeks Literature review, finding articles 10 days Research Design 4 days The Research Framework and Hypotheses 1 week Submit the Research Proposal March 28th, 2014 Making questionnaire 2 weeks Collection of data 3 days Analysis of data 18 days Preparation of the oral presentation 1 week Mid-progress oral presentation May 9th and 16th, 2014 Preparation of the final report 5 weeks Submit the Final report June 20th, 2014 APPENDIX B ARTICLES.

ARTICLE 1: The market acceptance of electric motorcycles in Taiwan experience through a stated preference analysis Yi-Chang Chiu, Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng Transportation Research Part D 4, 9 January 1999 (127-146) CONTENT FILE Background: In Taiwan, the urban areas are affected by the air pollution problem because of the condensed population and high motor vehicle density. This considerable problem has been taken into account and has encouraged the rapid development of electric motorcycles. Among more than 23 million residents in Taiwan, there are currently around 14, 800,000 motorcycles used and this number keeps increasing each year.

One in every three residents owns a motorcycle. Many of them choose motorcycles as their primary or secondary means of transportation for daily activities. In fact, several factors lead to the extensive use of motorcycles in Taiwan such as short daily trip distance, deficiency of parking spaces, high population etc. This use of motorcycles in Taiwan induces the air pollution problem. Controlling motorcycles emission levels is the key to improving the air quality. Thus, electric motorcycles seem to be an appealing solution. This study focuses on understanding the market response and the potential demand for electric motorcycles.

It also analyzes the different issues of electric motorcycles (developmental and energy-use issues). Questions/Expectations: In purchasing motorcycles, gender should be the most significant factor in market segmentation; namely, males and female have significantly different preferences in choosing motorcycles. Actions implemented by the government agencies for pollution prevention should also increase the incentive to own an electric motorcycle. What are the potential attributes that respondents considered essential in choosing a motorcycle?

Definitions and measures: Electric motorcycle is a plug-in electric vehicle with two wheels that can be recharged from any external source of electricity. It uses a rechargeable battery, stocking the electricity, to power the motor and move the vehicle. Electric motorcycles come with many advantages such as low noise level, high energy efficiency and zero-emission. Indeed, the most important advantage of electric motorcycles is to reduce the dependence on gasoline and so to improve the air quality. Purchase price: The price at which something is purchased It was one of the most important factors that affect the purchasing intention.

Researchers asked to the respondents how much beyond the purchase price, the alternative of buying an electric motorcycle was definitively unacceptable. Emission level: It is the level of emission of pollutants that is released into the environment. How much do people care about air pollution? Research Design: The study is based on an interview survey using stated preference modeling approaches. Two stages of surveys were conducted: The first stage survey focused on the determination of pertinent attributes to be used in stated preference choice models.

Researchers questioned people at gas stations in Taipei City about the critical factors affecting their decisions to purchase motorcycles. These factors included motorcycle ownership, use frequencies, use purpose, weekly driving range and the level of need to buy a motorcycle. Statistical analyses were applied in order to determine the market segmentation of motorcycles. And then, researchers interviewed households with stated preference questions relating to motorcycle choice. They were asked to express their preferences for hypothetical alternatives in terms of their attributes.

Data or Subjects: Hundreds persons responded to a questionnaire and hundreds of households were interviewed. Findings: The study results show that males are willing to pay a higher price in order to get an efficient electric motorcycle whereas females are willing to have an underperformance electric motorcycle in order to pay at a lower price. Thus, as electric motorcycles are underperform compared to gasoline motorcycles because of the limited battery capability and energy density, female motorists are the more potential target market for electric motorcycles.

Moreover, they significantly favor the attribute of emission level of the electric motorcycle and suggest the potential in accepting electric motorcycles. However, the infrastructure system is a critical component for the electric motorcycles development program. In fact, charging stations, maintenance and service shops are also others important elements that the Taiwanese government has to considerate by wanting to improve the air quality in Taiwan. ARTICLE 2: The factors affecting the demand for electric motorcycle Liang-Shyong DUANN, Hung-Yen CHOU, Chin-Chi WANG Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.

4-No. l, October, 2001 CONTENT FILE Background: The Air Pollution Control Act of Republic of China (ROC) has included economic incentives. The government will pay consumers a subsidy purchase electric motorcycle. Additionally, article 10 of the act says the authorities can charge consumers a fee for creating air pollution. The Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) started to charge a fee of 0. 2 NTD per liter for gasoline and diesel. These subsidies were very important because they made the prices of electric motorcycles to be close to or even lower than those of gasoline motorcycles of similar size.

Advertisements stated the electric motorcycle has zero emission and is very economic. Gasoline motorcycle costs 0. 5 NTD/km while electric costs only 0. 1 NTD. The EPA ran a demonstration project to show the driving range and power of electric motorcycle. However, demonstrations did not change the common perception that performance of electric motorcycles is inferior to gasoline motorcycles. The purpose of this paper is to find the factors affecting the demand for electric motorcycle. The authors also focused on the environmental protectionism issue.

They tried to understand whether the drivers daily environment behavior, their opinions about environmental protection, and their daily motorcycle usage would affect their demand for electric motorcycle. Questions/Expectations: The purpose of this study was to test the following two hypotheses: 1. The motorcycle user who cares about environmental protection or has the related knowledge will place higher value on the social merits of electric motorcycle. 2. The long distance or frequent user of motorcycle will place higher value on the performance of electric motorcycle.

If the first hypothesis is true, the manufacturers of electric motorcycles should continue their advertising based on the social merits of their products. If it is not, they should change their advertising strategies. If the second hypothesis is true, the only way to increase the sale is to improve the performance of electric motorcycle. If it is not, the manufacturers can put their efforts on other things, such as cutting the manufacturing cost. Definitions and measures: Segmentation: Respondents are divided into identifiable groups sharing similar tastes, preferences or behaviors with respect to a particular product.

These groups are the different market segments. Then, the segmentation showed results on three different domains, each of them is exploring different factors: The daily environment related behavior exploring 2 factors (environmental protectionism and energy saving); the opinions about environmental protection segment exploring 2 factors (willingness to pay for environment and knowledge about air pollution); the daily motorcycle usage exploring 2 factors (performance requirement for motorcycle and convenience of motorcycle).

Research design: First, the authors described the survey design procedure, which included questionnaire and the levels of attributes used. The survey questionnaire was composed of 17 questions separated into three groups: Group A: Respondents daily environment related behavior; Group B: Respondents opinions about environment protection; Group C: Daily motorcycle usage. Then, they discussed the model estimation and market segmentation results, as well as the factor analysis and cluster analysis that will be used to group the respondents. Finally, the authors discussed the factors affecting the demand for electric motorcycles.

Data or Subjects: 124 users of 50 cc gasoline motorcycle in the gas station and parking lot in the city of Tainan, Taiwan. Findings: After the analysis of factors affecting the demand for electric motorcycles, results showed that purchasing price, operating cost, top speed, maximum driving range, and methods of recharging the electric motorcycle have significant effect on the demand for electric motorcycle. Regarding the social area, respondents environment related behavior and opinions about environmental protection are not significant.

In fact, with a higher performance and convenience requirement for motorcycle, they tend to put higher value on the top speed and maximum driving range. They dont give so much importance to the value of social merits on electric motorcycles, but they do give importance to the cost of battery. These findings suggest that manufacturers of electric motorcycles should put more effort on reducing the cost of battery and increasing the performance rather than counting on the potential buyers social conscience.

ARTICLE 3: A viable niche market fuel cell scooters in Taiwan Chunto Tso, Shih-Yun Chang International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 28, 2003 (747-762) CONTENT FILE Background: Because of the intensive internal-combustion-engine scooters use, Taiwan is affected by serious environmental pollution. As a fact, the government establishes policies, Electric Motorcycle Development Action Plan, and encourages people to purchase electric motorcycles by providing a subsidy. However, because of the poor performance of lead-acid or nickel hydrogen batteries and the lack of recharge stations, consumers werent willing to purchase electric motorcycles.

To face this issue of inefficient battery, producers have been working to apply fuel cell technology. This paper is discussing about the current situation of battery powered electric scooters as well as the expected development of fuel cell scooters in view of commercial aspects such as economics, niche markets and consumer demand. Questions/Expectations: By establishing the Electric Motorcycle Development Action plan, the government expects Taiwanese people to use electric scooters and to gradually weed out the highly pol.

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