Nociceptors are pain receptors that are released whenever there has been an injury. Pain medications work against nociceptors to stop pain. (1) Alcohol has been used as a painkiller for centuries. Alcohol depresses the CNS by slowing down the brain and nervous system therefore it gives minor relief from pain. (2) Alcohol can be used as an injection into or around a nerve in the spine. This is called a nerve block. Nerve blocks are used to determine the source of pain, treat painful conditions, predict how pain will respond to long-term treatments, or for anesthesia during some smaller procedures.
(3) Aspirin is used for minor aches and pains. Aspirin is in a group of medications called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Once aspirin is dissolved into the bloodstream it attaches to an enzyme called COX-2. COX-2 produces chemicals called prostaglandins that allow your body to feel pain. Aspirin prevents prostaglandins from working. Aspirin is also used to prevent heart attaches and prevent blood clots from forming. (4) Lidocaine is known as a local anaesthetic drug. Lidocaine works by easily binding and blocking the fast voltage gated sodium (Na+) channels to be found both on the heart cardiomyocytes and in the neuronal cell membrane.
It is used during dental surgeries by working with epinephrine, which causes blood vessels to narrow, to decrease bleeding and increase the duration of anaesthesia due to constriction of efferent vessels which prevents the anaesthetic drug spreading away from the required area too quickly by delaying the resorption of Lidocaine. Morphine works by blocking the morphine receptors in the CNS. It is and opioid which is a derivative of the opium family which has been used as a pain reliever for many centuries. Morphine binds to morphine receptors which are on the surface of nerve walls.
It then sets off a chemical reaction intracellular that makes the cell less excitable. That in return slows down the CNS which makes it more sluggish. Morphine is used with acute trauma like kidney stones or it can also be used for chronic pain. For instance it could be uses for gastrointestinal disorders. Morphine makes the system more sluggish therefore constipation is a side effect that may occur.
(6) Ketamine is used as an anesthetic and analgesic drug. When used with a sedative it is used a general anesthesia. Ketamine works by altering neurons in the brain. It can produce a hallucinogenic state so recreational use is illegal. This is accomplished through the drugs inhibition of neuronal uptake of various neurotransmitters, including serotonin, glutamate, and dopamine. The net effect is a depression of neural communication between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex, resulting in an uncoupling of brain activity associated with memory, motor function, sensory experience, and emotion. (7) Succinylcholine is used to induce muscle relaxation into a state of paralysis. It acts as a depolarizing neuromuscular blocker. It is used for short term muscle relaxation in anesthesia and intensive care. This is usually for the facilitation of endotracheal inhibitor.