5. Does the literature background support the need for the study? Please explain your answer. The background literature defines ADHD, explains that these students have issues with retention, attendance and standardized tests. This information provides justification for exploring the topic of effective interventions. 6. What are the variables under study? Identify them as independent, dependent, moderator, control. The independent variables are ADHD and the dependent variable is 7. What is the setting, sample, population?
8. Identify the type of research. Descriptive, non-experimental. 9. What statistical procedures are used, if any? None were used. 10. What kind of design was used? Is it appropriate to the stated purpose, research questions and hypotheses? Since this is a descriptive article, it does not apply any research design nor does it explain the basis of selecting the particular effective strategies. The provision of several strategies does, however provide a variety of effective strategies to implement, which supports the opening statement, that it takes consistent implementation of multiple effective strategies for successful intervention with ADHD students.
11. What are the findings of the study? As stated above, the study impresses that it takes consistent implementation of multiple effective strategies for successful intervention with ADHD students. 12. Are there any problems with the internal validity of this study? The fact that the students are from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background and that the control and experimental groups were selected at random increases my confidence that there is internal validity.
13. Are there any problems with the external validity of this study? It is not possible to say that this study necessarily applies to the population because it was only conducted in one classroom. If there was a more robust sample from a variety of schools I would feel more confident applying this to the whole population in general. 14. What can be validly concluded from this study? The fact that there is no explanation for the choices that were made for effective strategies leads me to say that this paper is merely descriptive of options, not necessarily of the most effective interventions for ADHD.