¢Hopewell It was a developmental period in the Native American woodland civilization. Overall, it was centered in the Mississippi River Valley and in Ohio. Its effect on modern day society is great due to the extensive trade networks created, and the contributed effect on religion. ¢Inca The Incan Empire was the largest before Columbus discovered America, and was located in the highland areas of Peru. The amazing contributions in architecture, astronomy, mathematics and farming techniques such as the usage of terracing can be seen today in modern society. ¢Iroquois Confederation This was a group of tribes that came together, and it is significant because it is technically the first actual form of democracy ever, and it inspired the U.S. government that we have today. ¢Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is the territory around Mexico, southern North America, and parts of northern South America. This was important because it influenced cultural diffusion, and brought those places together by influencing a mix of their different religions and cultures/traditions.
¢Mississippian Culture I started out as the Mississippi River Valley, but later turned to a mound-building native civilization. It helped to develop areas of the United States, and had a huge emphasis on architecture and agriculture. ¢Paleo-Indians Paleo means old, so this literally translates to the Old Indians. Overall, Paleo Indians were some of the first inhabitants of the Americas. They had a very large hunting culture, which would spread to many other areas as they developed. ¢Wampum Wampum refers to strings of beads that were made using shells that could be used to seal agreements/pacts and were highly valued by other natives.
The Rise of the Atlantic World
¢Christopher Columbus He was originally trying to find a faster trade route to India from Spain, by sailing west to go east. However, he landed in the Americas, and even though he was not the first to reach America, he is still credited with its founding, and he played a huge role in the discovery of the United States, as he brought with him European influence. ¢Church of England The Anglican Church of England became separate from the Roman Catholic Church when King Henry VII wanted to annul his marriage, but was told that he could not. The Church participated in events such as the settlement of Jamestown, and spread significantly fast. As a result, the Church of England has had a huge influence on modern day religion, and politics, and still exists today. ¢Columbian Exchange This exchange between the Eastern and Western Hemisphere may be one of the most significant events in history. It was the exchange of many fruits and vegetables, in addition to animals, medicines, and diseases. Although there were some negative effects from the exchange, such as the introduction of smallpox to the western hemisphere, the overall impact that the Great Exchange had on the world was much more positive, and by far one of the largest examples of cultural diffusion.
¢Conquistadors Conquistadors were Spanish or Portuguese explorers, who would sail to areas across the world (mostly new areas in the western hemisphere) and conquer those territories. The influence this had on cultural diffusion was huge because of the new trade routes developed by this, and the interaction between the native people and European peoples. ¢Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company was made up of Dutch merchants, and its focus was on trading and colonization. One example and contribution to what the Dutch West India Company was responsible for is the founding of New Netherland. ¢encomiendas The encomienda system was one of the first (indirect) examples of slavery. Although it was not straight up slavery, its elements were very similar. The king would appoint a number of natives to a person who would then be responsible for them. By protecting them, and teaching them (as if they had a choice) the ways of Catholic religion and how to speak Spanish, they could then use those natives for labor. This influenced many later forms of slavery.
¢Headright System Originally, the headright system was used in order to fix the shortage of laborers. A person who would pay their way to the Americas would be given a certain amount of land, and they would also have to pay for the price of an indentured servant to come. However, as time went on, this started to transform into what is known today as slavery, and plays a huge role in racism and discrimination today, as well as slavery that came later on. ¢Henry Hudson Henry Hudson was a man who lived in the 17th century, and was an explorer/navigator. As inferred, he discovered the Hudson River, but also played a huge contribution in the founding of the Hudsons Bay, which allowed access to parts of Canada. ¢Indentured Servants Although they were not always slaves, indentured servants were people who would have their passage to the Americas paid for in return for their service to whoever paid for their trip. However, many of these servants would end up acquiring debt over time, and would never get out of their life of being an indentured servant. This was one of the first modern examples of slavery.
¢Jacques Cartier He was a French explorer, and his contribution was that he was the first person ever to both map, and describe, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. ¢New France A colony from France. King Henry insisted that a colony would only become strong if it could handle by itself, so France successfully ruled the colony for the next 100 years, and it greatly influenced the idea of colonies belonging to a country, which influenced countries other than just France, Spain, and Portugal to claim territories. ¢New Mexico New Mexico had very significant agricultural communities, and its nomadic hunters most likely settled more than 10,000 years ago. It made huge contributions to modern day ranching, farming, and mining. ¢New Netherland New Netherland was made up of a variety of settlers, including some Europeans, natives, and Africans. Overall the significance that it brought is the introduction of civil rights and pluralism, which were then adopted into American society.
¢Patroonships These were large estates, and they were an effort to boost immigration, by introducing many new families to living in them. ¢Peter Minuit He was the third director general of New Netherlands Dutch colony. His contribution to modern day is his role in the purchase of the island of Manhattan, which he was able to acquire from the Indians for $24. ¢Peter Stuyvesant He was both a Dutch soldier, as well as a colonial officer. He was also appointed to be the governor of Curacao in 1643. However, he was viewed as very unpopular due to his religious intolerance. However, he was responsible for projects such as Broadway and the canal that is now known as Broad Street. ¢Predestination The belief that god already determined who would receive salvation.
¢Protestant Reformation Reformists questioned the Roman Catholic Church, and individuals such as Martin Luther took radical steps in order to get the point across. However, even though this time is known for the questioning of indulgences and importance of the printing press, it is also very significant how it marked the beginning of new Churches such as the Lutherans, which were viewed as a more true representation of Gods word. ¢Pueblo Revolt and Pope The Pueblo Revolt is also known as Popes Rebellion. It was an uprising that consisted of numerous Pueblo Indians killing the Spanish and driving them out of present day New Mexico. ¢Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain was the man who helped establish settlements of Canada, as well as accurately and successfully map the coasts. In addition to that, he was a well known explorer. ¢St. Augustine, Florida The settlement was laid out in 1565. It is the oldest European settled city in the United States.