The literature review was conducted to identify risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy and parenthood, including patterns of teenage sexual behaviour, as well as current knowledge about effective strategies in teenage pregnancy prevention. The impact of teenage parenthood on parents and children and ways of supporting pregnant and parenting young women was also explored. The review relied predominantly on Australian literature in order to reflect local issues and perspectives. However, the need to consider more recent or extensive research in some areas required the use of overseas literature, mainly from the US and the UK.Teenage pregnancies in the Philippines surged by 70 percent over one decade, a ranking official of the United Nation Population Fund Agency (UNFPA).
Ugochi Daniels, UNFPA country representative, said the rising number of teenage pregnancies in the country is an area of concern that the agency is giving serious attention to, exposing as it does adolescent girls (10 to 19 years old) to high risk. Government statistics on female adolescent pregnancies indicate that the total number of annual births changed little over the preceding 10 years, but the number of teenage pregnancies rose 70 percent, from 114,205 in 1999 to 195,662 in 2009. Based on data compiled from birth certificates, of the 1.75 million live births in 2009, the latest review year, over 11 percent involved teenage mothers.
Teenage pregnancy is widespread in the Philippines, especially amongst the poor. It is astory that may not be too pleasant, but one that is repeated all too often.Teen pregnancy is anobvious rising issue in our society. During the 21 st century, the statistics about this issue continues to rise even though there are a lot of disadvantages that young mothers and fathers can obviously get in the said issue. Fox (2008) defined teenage pregnancy as: Teenage pregnancy is one of the most important and alarming issues in todays world. A teenage pregnancy, also referred to as teen pregnancy, comes to be when a girl attains motherhood before she becomes a major or adult, as laid down by the law of the land Some 16.5 million Filipinos belong to the 15-24 year old age group. We are forced with a glaring truth that at a very young age, a lot of young people today have children of their own. 30% of all births belong to this age group; and by the age of 20, 25% of the youth are already mothers.
This shocking truth about teenage pregnancy in the Philippines should wake the government and parents themselves to take action (Flores, 2008). According to the 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study by the University of the Philippines Population Institute (Uppi) and the Demographic Research and Development Foundation, twenty six(26%) of our Filipino youth nationwide from ages 15 to 25 admitted to having a premarital sex experience. What¶s worse is that 38 percent of our youth are already in alive-in arrangement. Another is the 1998 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS)reveals that 3.6 million of our teenagers (thats a whopping 5.2 percent of our population!) got pregnant. In 92 percent of these teens, the pregnancy was unplanned, and the majority, 78 percent, did not even use contraceptives the first time they had sex(Singsong, 2008).Most teenagers dont plan to get pregnant, but many do. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to the mother and the baby. Risks for the baby include premature birth and a low birth weight. To control this, we must help each other by following the suggested solutions.
Causes of teenage pregnancy are occurring due to following reasons according to Fox (2008): Consequence of raging hormones. Most teenagers experience sudden and hitherto unknown emotions and feelings during their early puberty. All this, coupled with a sudden sense of new-found freedom and sexuality, results in many of them giving vent to their feelings through sexual expressions and experiences. Of course, most countries stress on sex education in schools, but yet, some teenagers involve themselves in unsafe sex, which could lead to unwanted pregnancies. Peer pressure. A lot of teenagers indulge in early sexual behaviour due to peer pressure.
This is due to the fact that they feel the great need to be hip and accepted by their circle of friends. The only way they could probably achieve that would be by having a boyfriend or girlfriend or at least by dating and indulging in sexual acts often. Contraceptive Failure. Though there are many types and brands of contraceptives and emergency birth control pills easily available in the market, these are never a guarantee for complete safety. Only Mother Nature knows when she might want to get into action, so no form of birth control is going to be completely foolproof! (Fox, July 18, 2008).Other causes of teenage pregnancy are:
1. Lack of Parental Guidance. Most people evade their children from talking about sex. In some cases, they provide false information regarding sex and discourage their children to participate in any informative discussion about sex. In some cases, teenage mothers are not well educated about sex before getting pregnant and thus this leads to lack of communication between the parents and the children. 2. Inadequate Knowledge about Safe Sex. Most adolescents are unaware of safe sex. They probably have no access to the traditional methods of preventing pregnancy. And the main reason behind is that they are either too embarrassed or fear to seek information about it. It was found that more than 80% of teenage pregnancies are unintended. 3. Exploitation by Older Men. This is another major factor that contributes to pregnancyamong the teenagers. Those girls who date older men are more likely to become pregnant before they attain womanhood. Rape, sexual exploitations etc. also takes place that leadsto unwanted pregnancy among teenage girls.
4. Socio Economic Factors. Teenage girls who belong to the poor families are more likelyto become pregnant. Researchers have found that even in the developed countries teenage pregnancy occurs most commonly among the deprived sections. 5. Glamorization of Pregnancy. The movie industry and the media contribute to teenage pregnancy by glamorizing teen pregnancy in news stories and movies. Movies that depict teen pregnancy as something to be desired encourage teens to engage in reckless sexual activity, according to ABCs Good Morning America. During adolescence, teens become more focused on their appearance and how their peers perceive them. They want to be seen as part of the group, so if teen pregnancy is viewed as acceptable in their school or amongst their friends, they may seek to become pregnant as a way to gain social acceptance.
6. Teenage Drinking. Teen drinking can cause an unexpected pregnancy, according to the website Love to Know. Many teens experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drinking lowers a teens ability to control her impulses, contributing to 75 percent of pregnancies that occur between the ages 14 and 21. Approximately 91 percent of pregnant teens reported that although they were drinking at the time, they did not originally plan to have sex when they conceived. 7. Sexual Abuse or Rape. Teens can become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse or rape. The Guttmacher Institute states that between 43 and 62 percent of teens acknowledge that they were impregnated by an adult male, and two-thirds report that their babies fathers are as old as 27. Approximately 5 percent of all teen births are the result of a rape.
8. Inconsistent use of birth control Even though the use of contraceptives has increased among teenagers, its use remains spotty. Teens may use birth control to help prevent teen pregnancy, but most do not use contraceptives consistently. Erratic contraceptive use, however, is better than none. A sexually active teen that does not use any birth control has a 90 percent chance of becoming pregnant within a year. Some of the reasons that birth control is not used include the following: uneducated about birth control, uncomfortable using birth control methods and unable to access reliable birth control. 9. Abstinence-only sex education. Despite recent government efforts to fund abstinence-only sex education, the vast majority of teenage boys and girls (62 percent and 70 percent) have initiated vaginal sex by the age of
18. Because of their nature, abstinence-only programs leave out educational information on birth control. These programs have never been shown to actually reduce the incidence of teen pregnancy. However, they are the programs that receive the most funding from the government. There are state governments that forbid any sort of teen sex education in schools at all. This means that teens that experiment may not have information on birth control and are more likely to engage in activity that results in teen pregnancy. 10. Psychological factors. The immature and irresponsible behaviour arising duet complex teenage psychology is another important cause of teenage pregnancies. Teenagers often go through a number of emotions because of their own transition from childhood and peer pressure.
The causes above are also similar to the causes here in the Philippines.
a) Existing Solutions since abortion is immoral and legally wrong here in the Philippines, they consider adoption for the baby or acceptance for the parents. If not yet born, then they suggest that the baby not be killed. Currently, the government proposes sex education but it is still debated whether it would be taught or not. One way to prevent pregnancy is by practicing safe sex. In addition to it, birth control tools such as condoms, pills, intra-uterine devices or supremacies can regulate the fertility of a womans eggs. Even though it decreases the chances of not being pregnant, still it is not 100%sure and effective to avoid pregnancy. Some are even desperate that they will come to a point that they have to abort their babies without knowing the effects it may cause to the mother and it will kill the conscience of who will ever do this abortion thing.
With the help of Science, Medicine has developed a new pill contraceptive namedRU486, the morning after solution to a sex encounter.
Teenagers nowadays are sexually active without their parents knowing their sexual activities. Often times, media promotes sexuality to the young which may cause them to be mislead with wrong information about sex and they might be misguided, thats why parents play an important role to the lives of their children.
For all we know, sex is for those couples who already undergo to the Sacrament of Marriage, because doing sex needs a lot of sense of maturity not only physical but mental and spiritual basis. Once a pregnancy occurs from premarital sex, the couple is bound to live together for the rest of their lives with or without marriage because they have now the obligation to raise the child.
The best way to avoid teen pregnancy is by avoiding or abstaining from sex before marriage. One thing is for sure, abstain from sex will keep you 100% safe from diseases, undesired relationship, and of course teenage PREGNANCY (Life Challenges -AllAboutLifeChallenges.org, 2011).
Other possible Solutions are:
1. Abstinence from sex until you are old enough to do so.
2. Usage of contraceptives and other forms of birth controls.
3. Sex Education.
4. Affection and Guidance of parents.
6. Discouraging early dating
What Ever the solutions may be, we must all keep in mind that we must be pro-life.
b) How it is done in other countries.
Existing solutions do not only exist on the Philippines but also on other parts of the world. For Example, abortion in the United States has been legal in every state since the United States Supreme Court decision in Roe V. Wade, on January 22, 1973. Prior to Roe, there were exceptions to the abortion ban in at least 10 states; Roe established that a woman has a right to self-determination (often referred to as a right to privacy) covering the decision whether or not to carry a pregnancy to term, but that this right must be balanced against a states interest in preserving fetal life (Wikipedia, 2011).
In Egypt, they teach knowledge about male and female reproductive systems, sexual organs, contraception and STDs in public schools at the second and third years of the middle-preparatory phrase (when students are aged 12-14)(Wikipedia, 2011).
In France, They promote sex education and it has been part of school curricular since 1973. Schools are expected to provide 30 to 40 hours of sex education, and pass out condoms, to students in grades eight and nine (Wikipedia, 2011).
In Britain, which has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in Europe ,sex education is a heated issue in government and media reports
In Sweden, sex education has been a mandatory part of school education since 1956. The subject is usually started between ages 7 and 10, and continues up through the grades, incorporated into different subjects such as biology and history
In some countries, such as America, Falcon punch is done by the teens. The Falcon Punch is most often used to end the untimely pregnancy of a loved one in a humane manner, especially if the loved one happens to be under the age of sixteen. (EncyclopediaDramatica,2011).
Active euthanasia, commonly referred simply as euthanasia, is only legal in the Netherlands and Belgium. (Wiki Answers, 2011)
Euthanasia is the intentional killing by act or omission of a dependent human being for his or her alleged benefit, and over the years it has been one of the favourite tools of those who think society is better off when we take active steps to kill the poor, the disabled, the elderly, or the ³unwanted´. Today the debate over euthanasia most commonly revolves around the issue of physician-assisted suicide. There are many forms of euthanasia but the assisted suicide is its most common from. This method has also been done to prevent teenage pregnancy. (Wikipedia,2011)
There are many possible solutions that can be done, some countries perform different methods that are immoral for Filipinos. One example is abortion. But amidst all this, we must learn to give importance to life because it is Gods wonderful gift to all of us
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
This study answers the following questions:
1. What is your reaction on teen pregnancy?
2. Do you know anything about RH Law?
3. Did you ever think of aborting a baby?
4. Do you still continue to pursue your education?
5. Do you know of anywhere in your local area where free condoms are available to younger couples?
6. What is the best solution or prevention on Early Pregnancy?
7. How the other country preventing early pregnancy.
Locale of the Study
The Study was done in STI College Laguna, The IT students give an survey about their reaction about Early Pregnancy and what they say about passing the RH Law.
The fact is that the RH Bill is now a law of the Republic, and the President, barring judicial intervention, has the obligation of seeing to its effective, just and balanced implementation. Indeed, it would be tragic if, after all the acrimony, we end up with a law that is not implemented like many good legislation in this country.
According to Dean Tony La Vina, in her view, the protracted debate, even if it was too long (lasting 13 years), actually improved the bill and, thanks in part to the opponents of the bill, we have a much more balanced and a better law than originally proposed. Among others, it is clear that abortifacient methods are prohibited (although the definition of abortion as preventing implantation of a fertilized ovum is controversial), freedom of conscience is respected, and there is neither a mandate to reduce our population nor a preference for smaller families. Below is a summary of what I believe are the most important provisions under the RH Law: * It affirms in a balanced way various state policies related to the right of health, including reproductive health, the rights of women, couples and families, and the protection of the life of the mother and the unborn.
The law provides for spousal and parental consent in specific instances although safeguards to protect the individual rights of mothers or those availing of a service or procedure are also included. * In my view, the RH Laws most important provision is the guarantee by the State to provide universal access to medically-safe, non-abortifacient, effective, legal, affordable, and quality reproductive health care services, methods, devices, supplies which do not prevent the implantation of a fertilized ovum as determined by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and relevant information and education thereon according to the priority needs of women, children and other underprivileged sectors. * In implementing the above policy, the State shall promote and provide information and access, without bias, to all methods of family planning, including effective natural and modern methods which have been proven medically safe, legal, non-abortifacient, and effective in accordance with scientific and evidence-based medical research standards.
If this no bias principle is actually implemented, it will go a long way in reducing acrimony in the laws implementation. * The RH law also provides that the State shall also provide funding support to promote modern natural methods of family planning, especially the Billings Ovulation Method, consistent with the needs of acceptors and their religious convictions. * The RH Law does not set demographic or population targets, and in fact, states that the mitigation, promotion and/or stabilization of the population growth rate is incidental to the advancement of reproductive health. Further, each family has the right to determine its ideal family size: although the State is mandated to equip each parent with the necessary information on all aspects of family life, including reproductive health and responsible parenthood, in order to make that determination. * Religious freedom is actually respected in the RH Law.
Hospitals owned and operated by a religious group do not have to provide services contrary to its beliefs although these hospitals shall immediately refer the person seeking such care and services to another health facility, which is conveniently accessible. The conscientious objection of a health care service provider based on his/her ethical or religious beliefs are also respected, accompanied by an obligation for referral. These exceptions do not, however, apply in emergency cases.
* The RH Law provides that no person shall be denied information and access to family planning services, whether natural or artificial. Minors however will not be allowed access to modern methods of family planning without written consent from their parents or guardian/s except when the minor is already a parent or has had a miscarriage. * Finally, age- and development-appropriate reproductive health education to adolescents (10-19 years) is mandated for public schools, which program shall be based on consultations with parents-teachers-community associations, school officials and other interest groups. Private schools may adopt the program at their own option, but consistent with religious freedom, are not obliged to do so.
Scope and Limitations:
This investigation is conducted to determine the rate of STI students that is reacted on Early or Teen Pregnancy. This way, we could determine the status and profile of the teenager Reaction in teenage pregnancy. The aspects looked into were the quantitative information of number of STI IT students Reaction in teenage pregnancy and the data behind this. This investigation focuses on number of IT students Reacted in teenage pregnancy in STI College Laguna portrayed by our group as respondents during February 2013.
Definitions of Terms
Teenage pregnancy refers to any pregnancy on women that took place between the ages 13 19 years old.
Teen aged Students refers to students that ages a number that end in teen as the last syllable such as13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19. Rate refers to a quantity from a recent quantity
STIS refers to Sexually Transmitted Infections
STDS refers to Transmitted Diseases
Sex the sum of the structural, functional, and behavioural characteristics of organisms that are involved in reproduction marked by the union of gametes and that distinguish males and females RH Reproductive Health
Contraceptives A device or drug serving to prevent pregnancy.
Reference: http://www.dcsi.sa.gov.au/pub/ http://www.scribd.com/doc/51595306/Teenage-Pregnancies-in-the-Philippines-2, http://www.rappler.com/thought-leaders/18972-reconciliation-post-rh-law