Americans are consuming twice as many beverages as they were 25 years ago; however, while carbonated soft drinks continue to remain the most popular beverage, consumer preferences are changing to include other types of beverages, such as waters, juices, and other drinks perceived to be a healthier alternative. The changes in preferences and overall increases in new alternatives are beginning to bring the total consumptions rates for CSDs down from their 25 year high. In 2004, 10. 24 billion cases were sold, while 2005 showed a 0.
6% decrease translating to 10. 18 billion cases. This 2005 decline came after a small growth in both 2003 and 2004. Coca-Cola lost some market share, Pepsi gained some, and diet drinks seems to be what is fueling the overall category growth. Dr. Pepper, Cadbury Schweppes only US sold CSD, was the only beverage to have growth in the US in 2005. This was due in part to the launch of Diet Cherry Vanilla Dr. Pepper. As mentioned above, the top-three players in the CSD market are Coca-Cola, Pepsi, and Cadbury Schweppes (Dr. Pepper).
Coca-Cola continues to hold the lead position with a market share of 45%, but Pepsi and Cadbury Schweppes are not far behind with 32% and 15%, respectively. At this stage in this very mature market, the only way market share will change significantly is through takeovers. However, the takeover targets that exist are so small, that the market share increase would be approximately 1%. Despite the 2005 decrease in consumption, three-year sales numbers for these companies show increases in both Coca-Cola and Pepsi from 2003 to 2005. While Coke remains the leader, Pepsi believes that they will continue to grow through product innovation.
Their diet carbonated beverages continue to grow, so as long as consumer interests stays relatively high on the diet beverages, Pepsi feels that it is positioned to remain in a tight competition with Coke. Product Quality Product quality is an extremely important issue for all companies. But when it comes to products that will be consumed, customers will turn their back on a product if they face a product issue. Coca-Cola ensures the safety and product quality of their beverages through a system they have designed call The Coca-Cola Quality System.
This in an integrated approach to managing all aspect relating to the product ? quality, the environment and health and safety. This worldwide system involves every aspect of their business. All employees are empowered to follow and expected to maintain the high quality standards. While PepsiCo is operating the beverage and food industry, the company is extremely committed to providing safe, wholesome products and protecting equity in their brands and trademarks. In all divisions throughout the globe, they have implemented strict policies related to food safety, labeling product integrity and quality.
Their policies cover food safety, sanitation, recalls and allergens and require that our products are coded, labeled, identifiable and traceable. Cadbury Schweppes, playing in both the beverage and confectionary industries, also has high quality standards. They use innovation, responsible marketing and ethical sourcing to deliver the best quality products to their consumers. They also have strict levels of control on their manufacturing processes and are committed to minimizing any environmental impacts these processes may cause. Management Each of the top three CSD companies has been in business for over 100 years.
As the times change, management has changed in order to keep up with the trends and consumer preferences. Changes that will keep each company fresh and on the cutting edge. Coca-Cola is the number one carbonated beverage company in the world, selling almost 1. 3 billion servings everyday. This is due, in part, to the strength of the management team behind the scenes. Coca-cola has a goal oriented work environment and a democratic management style. Their main focus, other than product innovation, is to focus on marketing and advertising of their leading products.
The real story of The Coca-Cola Company lies in what they are doing to build a sustainable-growth business for tomorrow. PepsiCo management has an average age of 49. 5. The top executive positions have been all been occupied within the last 5 years. While the top-level management is relatively new, they have all been with various divisions of PepsiCo for several years prior to assuming their current roles. Under Pepsi current management, they have developed a strategy that they hope will help gain the competitive edge they need to steal market share from Coke ? its called Pepsis Sustainable Advantage.
Pepsis Sustainable Advantage ? Source: www. pepsi. com Three major sustainable advantages give PepsiCo a competitive edge as we operate in the global marketplace: 1. Big, muscular brands; 2. Proven ability to innovate and create differentiated products; and 3. Powerful go-to-market systems. The management team of Cadbury Schweppes is to deliver superior shareowner performance for profitability and to significantly increase the global confectionary market share and ensure the growth of the regional beverage share. They believe strongly in innovation.
They take into consideration the changing trends in consumer preferences ?an important driver for their future growth. Cadbury Schweppes management team has an average age of 56. They, like Pepsi, have been brought up from other positions with in the Cadbury Schweppes organizations. The length of time in each of the top levels positions ranges from three to five years. The current management structure enables them to focus on delivering their commercial agenda and top-line growth, and allows the functions to develop and drive global strategies and processes towards best in class performance, while remaining closely aligned to the regions commercial interests.
Advertising Soft drink companies are realizing that the most important and fastest growing segment is multicultural youths. By connecting music trends, clothing trends, and electronic trends, among others, these companies are able to reach the multicultural youth segment. The most popular medium, however, being used by beverage companies to target this segment, is on-line advertising. In 2005, Pepsi had the most on-line ad impressions at over 92 million, while Coke came in with just over two million. Perhaps in an effort to bump up their on-line impressions, Coke is launching their version of iTunes, called iCoke.
Integrating music and web to reconnect their brand with the multicultural youth market. Hip-hop music is also one of the popular trends being used to target this audience. From black sileouttes grooving with an Ipod to a Superbowl ad featuring Diddy riding in Pepsi truck, hip-hop has definitely become apart of advertising to the young urban market. Global Sales Figures for Top Three CSD Companies Company Profiles The Coca-Cola Company is the worlds number one maker of soft drinks, selling 1. 3 billion beverage servings every day. Coke owns three of the top six soft-drink brands (Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, and Sprite).
Among its other brands are Barqs, Minute Maid, POWERade, and Dasani water. Nearly 70% of Cokes beverage sales are generated outside North America. The break down is as follows: North America, 30 percent; Europe, Eurasia, and the Middle East, 31 percent; Asia, 24 percent; Latin America (including Mexico), 10 percent; and Africa, 4 percent. Coca-Cola is the best-selling soft drink in most countries and has a presence in over 200 countries. Nevertheless, there are some places like Quebec and Prince Edward Island, Canada, where Pepsi is the market leader.
In the Middle East, the only region in the world where Coca-Cola is not the number one soda drink, Coca-Cola nonetheless holds almost 25% marketshare (to Pepsis 75%) and had double-digit growth in 2003. [www. answers. com, Coca-Cola Company, January 30, 2007] Pepsi, with a 21% share of the worldwide carbonated soft drink market and a 29% share in the United States, is the #2 carbonated soft-drink company. Their business focus is on offering quality and value to their consumers and customers while providing products that are safe, wholesome, economically efficient, and environmentally sound. (www. pepsico.com).
This focus is combined with a long-term goal of putting an end to their quest to steal market share away from Coke. Pepsis soft drinks, Pepsi and Mountain Dew make up more than one-quarter of its sales. They also own Frito-Lay, the worlds #1 maker of snacks such as corn chips (Doritos, Fritos) and potato chips (Lays, Ruffles, Stax). Pepsi also sells Tropicana orange juice brands, Gatorade sports drink, and water. Their Aquafina brand water is the #1 bottled water sold in the United States. On a global basis, Pepsis product portfolio consists of 16 brands that than created approximately $500 million in sales each year.
Like Coke, Pepsi owns three of the top six soft drinks, Pepsi, Diet Pepsi and Mountain Dew. Overall, Pepsi gains about 35% of its retail sales from outside the United States, with brands being marketed in about 160 countries, while Coke sits at 70% of their sales outside the United States with brands in 200 countries. Pepsis Sustainable Advantage ? Source: www. pepsi. com Three major sustainable advantages give PepsiCo a competitive edge as we operate in the global marketplace: 4. Big, muscular brands; 5. Proven ability to innovate and create differentiated products; and 6. Powerful go-to-market systems.
Cadbury Schweppes is one of the oldest and largest family-run businesses in the world today. The company is currently the worlds third leading producer of soft drinks and fourth leading confectionery manufacturer. Their number one soft drink, Dr Pepper is the oldest major soft drink in the US and the number one in its category with a 92 per cent share of the entire pepper soft drink sector. It was the only soft drink in the US to experience growth in 2005. Its beverage brands are sold mainly in North America and Western Europe and include 7 UP (US only), A&W Root Beer, Canada Dry, Dr Pepper, and Hawaiian Punch.
Cadbury Schweppes holds the third position with a market share of %15. To catch Coke and Pepsi at this point, they would have to come up with and abosultely dynamic new product. Coca-Cola Company (Information Compiled from www. coca-cola. com) Brief History John Stith Pemberton, a druggist, founded the Coca-Cola Company in 1885. John developed a non-alcoholic, carbonated drink from the French Wine Cola, and he named the beverage Coca-Cola because it was made with coca leaves and flavored kola nuts; these nuts were the primary source of caffeine. Today Coca-Cola is one of the largest corporations in USA.
Coco-cola is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and is the largest beverage selling company in the world; selling top five brands of beverages in 200 countries. They are an extremely successful company although they are not based on selling or manufacturing essential product. Coca-Colas motto is to possess as much stomach share as possible; market share comes second on their priority list. Today, the Coca-Cola companies net worth is $20 billion. It is rated as 233 on the Forbes Global 500 list and in US, is considered to be the symbol of global marketing. Company Philosophy.
The Coca-Cola Company exists to benefit and refresh everyone it touches. The basic proposition of our business is simple, solid and timeless. When we bring refreshment, value, joy and fun to our stakeholders, then we successfully nurture and protect our brands, particularly Coca-Cola. That is the key to fulfilling our ultimate obligation to provide consistently attractive returns to the owners of our business. Management The key focus of the Companys management is on advertising and sales. As Coke, Sprite, Fanta and other beverages are non-essential products; the company primarily focuses on sales and marketing of these products.
The Company has a democratic management style. Various meetings, discussion and brainstorming sessions take place to know more about the staffs opinion. The staffs judgments are also well taken care of by the senior management. This friendly relation is maintained so that the employees have full confidence on their managers/senior management and keep producing the best quality product/result. It is perhaps because of this friendly environment, employees are very loyal to their company. Coca-Cola is now considered to be a company with the largest diversity.
Since it is a multi-national company with presence all over the world, this new management approach (diversity) has enhanced its brand image as the company started emplying locally, serving its local communities and contributing for a better life of the local citizens. The Company maintains a very goal oriented culture and very often rewards its employee for successfully implementing a strategy or plan. CEO: Neville Isdell is the Chairman and CEO of the Coca-Cola Company from May, 4, 2004. E Neville has a bachelors degree in Social Sciences from University of Cape Town and is also a graduate of the Harvard Business School.
Mr. Isdell joined the company in 1966 in the Coca-Colas bottling company in Zambia. Then he moved to South Africa as the General Manager, as the region manager in Australia in 1980 and in 1981 he became the President of the joint venture of the bottling company of Coca-Cola and San Miguel Corporations in Philippines. After working with the company for few more years he left the company and became the president of his own investment company. During these years he remained as the senior international consultant to the then CEO Doug Daft and the Coca-Cola system. After Doug Daft he retired, E Neville Isdell became the CEO.
Previous Marketing Campaigns In mid 1970s, seeing the political instability of US after the resignation of the then President, Nixon, Coca-Cola came up with a very creative campaign to remind the Americans of their countrys positive values ? the campaign was Look up America. The campaigned featured all that are real things such, football players, cattle herd and there was a narrator quoting a line, which meant no matter what youre doing or where you are, look up for the real things like Coca-Cola. In 1976, Cokes campaign was targeted towards the young and young-at-heart.
The ad was Coke adds life to?. This ad was created to deliver the message that coke brings happiness to life. 1982s ad was Coke is it. This campaign emphasized more on the quality and taste of the drink. In 1993, Coca-Colas campaign was Always Coca-Cola. This campaign had 27 commercials for specific target audiences. These ads were created for audiences all over the world and for the first time Coke introduced an animated polar bear in one of its ad called Northern Lights. The ad shows polar bears watching movies and drinking coke. This ad was hugely popular overnight. Cokes Slogans: 1970 ?
Its the real thing 1971 ? Id like to buy the world a coke 1975 ? Look up America 1976 ? Coke adds life 1979 ? Have a Coke and a smile 1982 ? Coke is it! 1985 ? Weve got a taste for you (Coca-Cola and Coca-Cola classic). Americas real choice 1986 ? Catch the wave (Coca-Cola), Red White & You (Coca-Cola classic) 1989 ? Cant beat the Feeling 1990 ? Cant beat the Real Thing 1993 ? Always Coca-Cola. Taste it all 1994 ? Play Red Hot Summer 1995 ? Play Red Hot Summer Again 1996 ? Enjoy 2001 ? Life is Good 2003 ? Real 2005 ? Make it Real 2006 ? The Coke side of life Coca-Cola ? Consumption and sales.
The table below shows the amount of Coca-Cola in servings that had been drunk by the respective year. As a logical consequence, these numbers are indicators of the amount of Coca-Cola produced and sold. Selling Numbers of Coca-Cola 1886 9 glasses per day 1899 over 100 million 1902over 200 million 1903over 300 million 1907over 1 billion 1910over 2 billion 1912over 3 billion 1914over 4 billion 1915over 5 billion 1919over 10 billion 1936over 100 billion 1944over 100 billion 1952over 200 billion 1958over 300 billion 1962over 400 billion 1965over 500 billion 1973over 1 trillion 1982over 2 trillion 1993over 4 trilion.
1996over 5 trillion 2003over 6 trillion Source: www. thecoca-colacompany. com Major Controversies ? On July, 21, 2001, some members and leaders of the Columbia Bottling factory of Coca-Cola filed a case in US ? the Sinatrainal leaders and members were constantly threatened, tortured, killed and kidnapped by the paramilitary death squads who were working in alliance with the Columbia Bottling factory managers and the government to destroy the factory union. The Centre for Science and Environment, India, in 2003 claimed that aerated waters produced by Coca-Cola and PepsiCo while manufacturing its carbonated drinks has toxins ?
DDT, lindane, malathion, chlorpyrifos; these pesticides can cause cancer after consumption and even damage the immune system. The Centre for Science and Environment also reports that the percentage of pesticide residual found in soft drinks produced by Coca-Cola is 30 times more than that is allowed by European Union Regulations. States like Kerala in 2006 banned the production and sale of Coca-Cola products as the state was concerned with the high level of pesticide residue in the soft-drinks.
In India, it was also reported that the farmers had to migrate to some other places as a very high amount of water is required to produce Coca-Cola, thus it dried up the aquifers. Surrounding these human rights violations in Columbia and India, 19 universities headed by University of Michigan and New York University in US, refused to renew their contract with the company. It has also been reported that until the company agrees to allow an independent investigation for these controversies, they will not have any contracts with Coca-Cola. But later, under certain terms and condition, the schools agreed o renew.
In 2000, the Company eliminated 6000 jobs in the process of restructuring. PepsiCo, Inc. (Information Compiled from www. pepsico. com) Brief History PepsiCo, Inc. manufactures, markets, and sells various snacks and beverages worldwide. It operates in four divisions: Frito-Lay North America, PepsiCo Beverages North America, PepsiCo International, and Quaker Foods North America. The company distributes its products through direct-store-delivery, broker-warehouse, and food service and vending distribution networks to its customers, including franchise bottlers, distributors, and retailers.
PepsiCo was founded in 1898 and is headquartered in Purchase, New York. Company Philosophy PepsiCos overall mission is to increase the value of our shareholders investment. We do this through sales growth, cost controls and wise investment of resources. We believe our commercial success depends upon offering quality and value to our consumers and customers; providing products that are safe, wholesome, economically efficient and environmentally sound; and providing a fair return to our investors while adhering to the highest standards of integrity.
Management PayExercised Ms. Indra K. Nooyi , 51 Chief Exec. Officer, Pres$ 2. 93M$ 2. 22M Mr. John C. Compton , 44 Chief Exec. Officer of North America and Member of Liquid Refreshment Beverage Oversight Council$ 1. 98M$ 1. 96M Mr. Donald M. Kendall , 86 Co-FounderN/A N/A Mr. Richard Goodman , 58 Chief Financial OfficerN/A N/A Mr. Hugh F. Johnston , 45 Exec. VP of Operations, Exec. VP of Global Procurement and Information TechnologyN/A N/A Dollar amounts are as of 31-Dec-05 and compensation values are for the last fiscal year ending on that date.
Pay is salary, bonuses, etc. Exercised is the value of options exercised during the fiscal year. Indra K. Nooyi The President and Chief Executive Officer of PepsiCo, the worlds fourth-largest food and beverage company. On August 14, 2006 she was named the next to succeed Steve Reinemund as chief executive officer of the company. Reinemund, 58, retired on October 1, 2006. According to Forbes magazines 2006 poll, Mrs. Nooyi is the fourth most powerful woman in the world. She has been named the #1 Most Powerful Woman in Business in 2006 by Fortune Magazine.
She received a bachelors degree from Madras Christian College and a Post Graduate Diploma in Management from the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta and graduated from the Yale School of Management. Prior to joining PepsiCo, Nooyi started her career with The Boston Consulting Group (BCG), from where she moved on to hold senior management positions at Motorola and Asea Brown Boveri. John C. Compton Prior to being named CEO for PepsiCo North America, Mr. Compton was President & CEO for Quaker-Tropicana-Gatorade (QTG), a position he assumed in 2005.
Previously, Compton spent over 20 years at Frito-Lay North America, where he started in 1983 as a production supervisor. He moved from manufacturing into marketing and then sales assignments, serving as Senior Vice President of Sales and Chief Marketing Officer. Richard Goodman Effective October 1, 2006, Richard Goodman, 57, will assume the position of Chief Financial Officer for the Company, with responsibility for Tax, Treasury, Control, Risk Management and Audit and Investor Relations. Mr. Goodman has served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of PepsiCo International since 2003.
Mr. Goodman also served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of PepsiCo Beverages International from 2001 to 2003 and Vice President and General Auditor of PepsiCo from 2000 to 2001. Mr. Goodman joined PepsiCo in 1992 as Vice President of Corporate Strategic Planning, International and held a number of senior financial positions with the Company and its affiliates until 1997 when he left PepsiCo to pursue other opportunities. Before joining PepsiCo, Mr. Goodman was with W. R. Grace in a variety of global chief financial officer positions. Hugh F. Johnston.
Hugh Johnston is Senior Vice President, Transformation of PepsiCo. He is responsible for several of the companys cross business initiatives which are designed to enhance operations and improve synergies across the company. These include Project One Up (PepsiCos ERP program), Supply Chain, and Go-To-Market Strategic Insights. Prior to assuming his current position in March of 2005, Mr. Johnston was Chief Financial Officer for PepsiCo Beverages & Foods where he was responsible for leading the finance function for Pepsi-Cola North America, Tropicana and Gatorade North America and Quaker Foods North America.
Previously, he was the Senior Vice President of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) for PepsiCo, where he was responsible for leading the corporations global merger, acquisition, joint venture and divestiture activities. He started with PepsiCo in 1987 in the Pepsi-Cola North America division, and has held numerous M&A, finance and strategy positions in PepsiCo Corporate, Frito-Lay and Pepsi- Cola divisions. Prior to joining PepsiCo, Mr. Johnston held several finance positions with General Electric Company.
He graduated from the University of Chicago with an MBA in Finance and Accounting and from Syracuse University with a BS in Finance. With revenues of about $29 billion, PepsiCo ranks as the worlds third largest food and beverage company. It includes: Frito-Lay, the worlds largest manufacturer and distributor of snacks; Pepsi-Cola, the second largest soft drink business; Tropicana, the largest marketer and producer of branded juices; Gatorade, the worlds leading sports drink, and Quaker Foods, with leading brands such as Quaker Oats. STEVEN S REINEMUND 57, has been PepsiCos Chairman and Chief Executive Officer since May 2001.
He was elected a director of PepsiCo in 1996 and before assuming his current position, served as President and Chief Operating Officer from September 1999 until May 2001. Mr. Reinemund began his career with PepsiCo in 1984 as a senior operating officer of Pizza Hut, Inc. He became President and Chief Executive Officer of Pizza Hut in 1986, and President and Chief Executive Officer of Pizza Hut Worldwide in 1991. In 1992, Mr. Reinemund became President and Chief Executive Officer of Frito-Lay, Inc. , and Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Frito-Lay Company in 1996. Mr.
Reinemund is also a director of Johnson & Johnson. Mr. Reinemund will retire next May to spend more time with his family. He will serve as Executive Chairman of PepsiCo effective October 1, 2006 and will continue to serve as Chairman of PepsiCos Board of Directors until his retirement in May, 2007. Previous Marketing In 1975, PepsiCo introduced the Pepsi Challenge marketing campaign where PepsiCo set up a blind tasting between Pepsi-Cola and rival Coca-Cola. During these blind taste tests the majority of participants picked Pepsi as the better tasting of the two soft drinks.
PepsiCo took great advantage of the campaign with television commercials reporting the test results to the public. Some attribute this to the higher sugar content found in Pepsi compared to Coca-Cola, as seen in the book, Big Secrets by William Poundstone. In 1996, PepsiCo launched the highly successful Pepsi Stuff marketing strategy. By 2002, the strategy was cited by Promo Magazine as one of 16 Ageless Wonders that helped redefine promotion marketing. Source: Promo Magazine, 2002. ?1939: Twice as Much for a Nickel ?1950: More Bounce to the Ounce ?1958: Be Sociable, Have a Pepsi.
?1961: Now Its Pepsi for Those Who Think Young ?1963: Come Alive, Youre in the Pepsi Generation. ?1967: (Taste that beats the others cold) Pepsi Pours It On. ?1969: Youve Got a Lot to Live, Pepsis Got a Lot to Give. ?1973: Join the Pepsi people (feeling free). ?1975: Have a Pepsi day. ?1979: Catch that Pepsi spirit. ?1981: Pepsis got your taste for life. ?1983: Pepsis Now! ?1984: The Choice of a New Generation. ?1991: Gotta Have It. ?1995: Nothing Else is a Pepsi. ?1997: GeneratioNext. ?1999: Ask for More/The Joy of Cola. ?2003: Its the Cola/Dare for More.
Cadbury Schweppes (information compiled from www. finance. yahoo. com) Brief History Cadbury Schweppes PLC is one of the oldest and largest family-run businesses in the world today. Although confectioner Cadbury Limited merged with the carbonated drinks company Schweppes Limited in 1969, Cadbury Schweppes is still run by members of the Cadbury family, which has been represented in Cadburys top management for almost 180 years. The company is currently the worlds third leading producer of soft drinks and fourth leading confectionery manufacturer. In August 1993 Cadbury Schweppes obtained a 20.
2 percent stake in Dr Pepper/Seven Up; the following month, the company acquired A&W, the largest root beer producer in the United States, for $334 million. Although small steps, these deals helped set the stage for further growth. In 1995 the company paid $1. 6 billion for the remaining stake in Dr Pepper/Seven Up, giving it a 17 percent share of the overall U. S. soft drink market. Company Philosophy As a major global beverage and confectionery company, we are dedicated to the manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of our branded products around the world.
Today, Cadbury Schweppes employs over 36,000 people and our products are available in almost 200 countries across the world. Management Sir John Sutherland Appointed Chairman in May 2003, Sir John Sunderland joined Cadbury Limited in 1968. Over the years he has worked on both the confectionery and soft drinks sides of the business, on the boards of Cadbury Ireland, Cadbury Schweppes South Africa, as a founding director of the Coca-Cola Schweppes UK joint venture in 1987, and then as Managing Director of Trebor Bassett.
In 1993 he became Managing Director of the Confectionery Stream and a member of the Cadbury Schweppes Board. In September 1996 he was appointed Chief Executive. Todd Stitzer In 1988 Todd became vice president and general counsel to the world-wide beverages stream and, in 1991, moved to the UK as group development director responsible for strategic planning and external development. Returning to the US in 1993 as vice president of marketing and strategic planning for Cadbury Beverages North America, he held a succession of increasingly responsible sales, marketing and general management roles.
Prior to his appointment to the Cadbury Schweppes board as chief strategy officer in March 2000, he was, from 1997, president and chief executive officer of Dr Pepper/Seven Up Inc Todd was appointed deputy chief executive officer in December 2002 and became chief executive officer in May 2003. Ken Hanna Ken was appointed Chief Financial Officer and Board Director of Cadbury Schweppes plc in April 2004. Prior to joining Cadbury Schweppes he worked as an Operating Partner on fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) at Compass Partners International, a private equity firm.
He also held positions as Group Chief Executive and Group Finance Director at Dalgety plc, Group Finance Director, United Distillers plc and Group Finance Director of Avis Europe plc. www. marketresearch. com Carbonated Soft Drinks ?
Global Industry Guide ? downloaded 1/24/2007 www. answers. com, The Coca-Cola Company, Company profile, downloaded, January 30, 2007 www. answers. com, PepsiCo, Company profile, downloaded, January 30, 2007 www. answers. com, Cadbury Schweppes, Company profile, downloaded, January 30, 2007.
Beverage Digest, Special Issue: All-Channel Carbonated Soft Drink Performance in 2005, Volume 48, No. 7, March 8, 2006 www. pepsico. com 2005 Annual Report www. cocacola. com www. cadburyschweppes. com 2005 Annual Report www. finance. yahoo. com www. clicks. com, Soda Pop Culture, by Rebecca Lieb, March 25, 2005. Downloaded, February 5, 2007 www. spinwatch. org, Coca-Cola prepares iCoke for global youth marketing drive, by Yinka Adegoke. Downloaded February 5, 2007.