A complex synthesis of classical, modern, philosophical, and rational thought has been revealed by the foundation of the American Republic, as well as, the impact of classical antiquity that was considered thoughtfully. In this regard, a combined political wisdom of thousands of years of human experience was reflected by the implementation of the abovementioned complex synthesis for the formation of a system of government.
Simplistic theories of interpretation have been defied by a degree of reflection and contemplation that completed that republican government, which is accounted as one of the most purposefully design by the history of mankind. In two years, after the completion of his first years exams, the degree was finished by the Madison in English, Greek, mathematics, and Latin. During this time, Reverend John Witherspoon considered Madison as one of his favorite students, and it was an honor as the Reverend was the president of the college.
Employing a syllabus that was classical and Christian Witherspoon taught Madison moral philosophies which greatly affected him for the rest of his life. Tangible manifestation in the Federalist Papers was found by the ability of Madison regarding the classical, as well as, modern political philosophy, which was often referred as quasi-Calvinist cognizance. Wherein the plan for a fractured government was described and advocated by Madison. In addition, any individual person or entity sought precluding of usurpation of the power of governance.
This theological system of belief also reveals itself in an existing political philosophy. As per the political thinking of the Calvinist, the grace of God is responsible for all the authority. In this regard, due rights are received by both authority and liberty, when the relation between the citizens and rulers is standardized unbridled authority on the part of rulers lead to despotism, autocracy, and tyranny; unbridled liberty on the part of citizens generates into license, revolution, and anarchy. License, anarchy, and revolution have been generated by the unbridled liberty on the part of the citizens.
Stewards from the God are found in the rulers, as proper constitution is formed in the government according to the principles of Calvinism. For Gods sake, the highest motives are considered for the obeying of the rulers by the citizens. An example for the understanding of development of the political, classical, and philosophical amalgamation for the debates that were performed during the formation of the American Constitution was presented by a strong proponent of the classics, Calvinist, and the Scottish Enlightenment Witherspoon.
The diverse approach of Witherspoon to education provides an important explanation for understanding Madisons talent of successfully merging classical and modern political theory into a feasible plan for a secure democratic state. In other words, an extensive intellectual focus was maintained by Witherspoon, by which, discordant philosophical, as well as, theological concepts were blended into an educational program effectively and coherently.
When Madison came into politics his instant tasks were clear, first he wanted to put up a proposal for a democratic republican government acceptable to the representative body at the Constitutional Convention, and second, to assure the ratification of the proposed Constitution. From an extensive view point, Madison wanted to produce a classic dissertation on the American system of government, which would enlighten future generations about democratic republicanism. Madison was able to attain both of these goals through one channel and that was The Federalist Papers.
This information helps in understanding how extensive knowledge of the classics was acknowledged by Madison and the other two authors. In Federalist no. 14 Madison presents a question, which can function as a good outline of his approach concerning the issue of the significance of the classics to the American people: It has been the glory of American people, as a blind veneration for antiquity, custom, knowledge, experiences lessons, and objections of their senses has not been suffered by them, as the opinions of former times, as well as, other nations have been paid with a decent regard by these people.
The Federalist has considered this thinking approach an obvious thing, since ancients have been referenced frequently by Madison, and their strengths and weaknesses have been borne in mind. When Thomas Jefferson sent the published texts of Polybius from France, the issues of the proposed government were considered by Madison, while positive and negative examples were considered and utilized from the ancient sources by him. Therefore Madison opposes the objections of people who mention the example of Ancient Greece as a sign of un-workability of a permanent republic.
He argues that Greece was a democratic system that was often confused with a republic; Madison distinguishes between the two by mentioning that a democracy requires the people to be in assembly in order to carry out the business of the state, whereas a republic requires only the assembly of legislative body to work effectively. Hence he includes both democratic and republican doctrines in his government blueprint. The importance of the classics in the American Republic origin was demonstrated by the evaluation of specific sections comprising of papers of the Federalist, and specifically, the Madison.
In addition, classical antiquitys major references were also included in these sections as mentioned before, Madison frequently opted for classical tradition method to convey his political message, yet Madison often referred to antiquity as a negative prototype for a political culture. One area in which Montesquieus political philosophy complements Madisons tactic is the issue of religion. After historical bigotry of the religion was criticized, and trade was meddled with it, it was commented by him that when the established religion satisfied the state, the establishment of another religion is not allowed.
In this regard, establishment of any state religion was banned by the framers of the Constitution. Few smart and wise individuals should be communicated with the important political truths for their wise implementation, which was provided by the writings of the political philosopher, as the relationship between the political community and philosophy was considered as volatile. At the same time, harmful truths were concealed from these individuals by these writings as well. This concept was well aware by the student of Montesquieu, Madison.
In the result, the classical and modern political philosophy was concealed by the furthering of his project. In this sense, the role of a crucial link in the chain of thoughts of the Romans and Greeks was played by the Madison, who was served by the Montesquieu. Classics are where Madisons popular audience was at a majority and this is one fact that he used to his benefit in writing The Federalist Papers. In addition, major references to classical antiquity were contained in six out of eighty-five of the Federalist Papers.
Passing references and explicit references regarding the specific indebtedness with a clear sign were contained in the twenty-three Federalist Papers. If these facts are considered, the link between classical antiquity and the origins of the American Republic appears to ignore a serious question. Mark Diamond states that the most immediate kind of political work was the Federalist, which was a piece of campaign propaganda. In addition, a view to the permanence of its argument was also provided to thoughtful men.
The widest electorate was at once addressed by it, but able and educated men were also considered, by whom, the fate of the Constitution could be determined. Short-term objective was accomplished by the Federalist, in which, public opinion had to be influence with the relation of political system of the United States. Federalist As mentioned before, the people of New York were persuaded by the publishing of the Federalist for the ratification of the Constitution.
It also made an attempt to elucidate different provisions of the Constitution and to enlighten the people by giving reasons, as to why other provisions like bill of rights had been excluded. It was argued by the Publius that an exceptional opportunity of reason and choice had by the Americans for the creation of own type of government. In contrast, earlier constitutions were determined by the chance of force. Publius argued that the Constitution shaped a republican style of government which was effective and sound in nature, but yet was controlled by checks and balances.