Both Classical India and Mesopotamia had law codes. Classical India used the Code of Manu while Mesopotamia used the code of Hammurabi. These codes were followed by everyone in both civilizations. Both law codes had punishments equal to the crime and were based off an eye for an eye premise or the principal of relation. Physical crimes had physical consequences, for instance, if you were to hit someone you would be punished by having your hand cut off. Likewise in both societies the lower class was treated exceedingly poor. Often the slave class was put to death for breaking the law codes against people of the upper class. Law codes were just one way that Classical India and Mesopotamia are similar.
Mesopotamia and Classical India alike were both patriarchal societies. This is important because it shows how much we have advanced in womens rights. Women in both civilizations were treated as property. While women in Classical India were protected, the rights they received were nowhere near the same as they were for men. Only men had the right to own property and make trades in both civilizations. Women were even treated poorly in the law codes. In the code of Hammurabi, if a womans husband died they would need to throw themselves in a fire. All women were to live for was their husbands. The patriarchal society of Classical India and Mesopotamia shows how women were treated and interacted with.
Social mobility was present in Mesopotamia while it wasnt in Classical India. In Classical India you were born into the caste system which was where you would stay for the remainder of your life. In order to move up you would have to wait for your next life. In Mesopotamia the classes were based on wealth. In Mesopotamia there were three social classes. The highest class was the richest and the lowest were the poor. In Mesopotamia if you came upon wealth you would move up in the social ranks unlike in Classical India.
Both Mesopotamia and Classical India had similarities and differences with the way the societies were governed and the social interactions between the people.