* The number of deadly car accidents in the U.S. caused by drivers under the influence of alcohol has increased in the past decades making alcohol one of the main factors of fatal crashes. * The legal level of BAC (blood alcohol concentration) in the U.S. has changed. 31 states defined level of 0.10% BAC as a crime, while 17 others defined the level of 0.08% BAC as a crime.
* To re-examine and refine estimates for alcohol-related relative risk of drivers involvement in fatal crushes by age, gender as a function of BAC. *To show that even as level as low as 0.08% BAC can affect a drivers skills and increase the relative risk of a deadly car accident.
Two methods used:
1) Data sources- using data, information and surveys that have been published in the past years. Examples: NHTSA- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
The National Roadside Survey of Drivers (96 NRS).
FARS-Fatality Analysis Reporting System.
Ministry Of Transportation.
2) Statistical Method:
A. Mathematical and statistical calculations were used to estimate and measure the relative risk. B. Researchers divided the normal driver- healthy (not disabled) men &women between the ages of 16-34, 35+ into six groups/types of drivers: * Drivers fatally injured in single vehicle crash.
* Drivers involved in fatal single vehicle crashes.
* Drivers fatally injured in two- vehicle crashes.
* Drivers involved in fatal two- vehicle crashes.
* Drivers fatally injured in motor-vehicle crashes.
* Drivers involved in fatal motor-vehicle crashes.
*all the six groups were classified by gender, age and BAC level.
Results and discussion:
* The relative risk in sober drivers decreased with age both for men and women. * Increasing the drivers BAC with each of the groups (gender and driver age) increased the relative risk. * Female drivers showed a lower relative risk then men drivers of the same age. * The relative risk of a fatal injury depends on the drivers BAC in almost the same way for single- vehicle crashes and two- vehicle crashes. * Dividing drivers into groups, helped to understand and research the pure effect of alcohol on drivers. * A BAC level of 0.10% as well as 0.08% is dangerous and affects a drivers skills, even those of hardened drinkers.
* According to the study, lower the legal level of BAC is necessary in order to lower the number of accidents caused by alcohol. * Young drivers (between the ages of 16-20) are exposed to much more risk as a result of their inexperienced driving, moreover, alcohol affects this age group more seriously and authorities may consider limits such as driving at night. * Existing laws could be enforced to stop youngsters buying alcohol. * There is a need to educate young people and the general public about the risks and the dangers of driving under alcohol implications.
Connection between the two articles:
The main idea that the authors of Alcohol- Related Relative Risk of Drivers Fatalities and Driver Involvement in Fatal Crashes in Relation to Driver Age and Gender article cite from the article Combined effects of alcohol and distraction on driving performance : * BAC (Blood Alcohol content) and the risk of a fatal traffic crash have a consistent relationship. * The effect of the factors below is more common among younger drivers
The authors of the article accident analysis and prevention cite the idea from the Alcohol- Related Relative Risk of Drivers Fatalities and Driver Involvement in Fatal Crashes in Relation to Driver Age and Gender text to support the idea that there is a consistent relationship between driver blood alcohol content (BAC) and the risk of a fatal traffic crash, especially for young driver.