Bibliography Chinese Immigration in Canada Essay

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Bolaria, B. Singh, and Sean P. Hier. Race and Racism in 21st-century Canada: Continuity, Complexity, and Change. Peterborough, Ont. : Broadview, 2007. Print. According to a statistics from Citizenship and Immigration Canada, the number of mainland Chinese immigrants to Canada increased impressively in the past 25 years. This has brought a significant amount of financial and human capital resources to Canada. However, the authors argue that they still have problems to get education-related professions. The main problem is to transfer their education and work experience to Canada.

This results in Chinese immigrants taking jobs for which they are overqualified and overtrained. Unlike language and cultural barriers, immigrants cannot resolve this obstacle by themselves. Even though Canadian people accept racial equality and democracy as central values in society, an ethnocentric view prevails in society resulting in negative attitudes towards immigrants. The authors argue that national unity can be achieved in the context of cultural diversity. They propose the Canadian government to consider more assistance to help Chinese immigrants to adapt to Canadian society.

Thereby Canada can fully benefit from international human capital transfer. This book is especially important to me since I dont know the Canadian society well and how the situation is today. It gave me a good general overview and showed that racism is still present in society. Canada. Senate and House of Commons of Canada. An Act Respecting Chinese Immigrants. 21 Feb. 2011. . The Chinese Immigration Act, 1923 was an act passed by the Parliament of Canada to control and ban immigration of people of Chinese origin or descent to Canada.

The act prohibited Chinese immigrants to enter Canada except they were merchant, foreign student or diplomat. The minister also had the right to authorize admission to Canada of any person of Chinese origin or descent without being subject to the provision of the Chinese Immigration Act. [1] This act is especially important because it documents that not only the Canadian population, even the government didnt want people from China to immigrate to Canada. Chapleau, Joseph-Adolphe, and John Hamilton Gray. Report of the Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration : Report and Evidence (1885).

Rep. Ottawa: Printed by Order of the Commission, 1885. Cornell University Libraries. Web. 21 Feb. 2011. . This report by the Royal Commission contains over 700 pages and it reflects the situation of Chinese Immigrants in Canada before 1885. It makes it obvious how unfavorable the Canadians thought about the unassimilable Chinaman. One of the authors argues that the main issue with Chinese immigrants is the competition with white labor. He explains that the competition has only been with the lowest kind of labor, not with the mechanic or skilled labor.

This report also includes a suggestion to impose a duty of $10 per head. Especially interesting is the statistic about the profession of Chinese immigrants in British Columbia. It lists all the different kind of jobs Chinese had at that time with exact numbers. This report is very important to everyone conducting research in this field because it covers a large spectrum of topics and analyzes all topics in detail. It also includes many interviews with white people talking about their thoughts about the Chinaman Hoe, Ban Seng.

Enduring Hardship: the Chinese Laundry in Canada. Gatineau, Quebec: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 2003. Print. Enduring Hardship: The Chinese Laundry in Canada offers an introduction to the history of Chinese entrepreneurship, especially in the laundry cleaning business from the end of the 19th century to the 1950s. With limited language skills and financial resources almost all Chinese immigrants toiled in laboring jobs such as railroad building, housekeeping, mining, and laundry cleaning. This book demonstrates that the Chinese laundryman has suffered tremendously.

He talked to many laundrymen and their spouses and relatives to get a better understanding how hard their life was. He wrote this book because he wanted the Chinese-Canadian to be incorporated into the socioeconomic and labor history of Canada. [2] Holland, Kenneth M. A History of Chinese Immigration in the United States and Canada. American Review of Canadian Studies 37 37. 2 (2007): 150-60. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Feb. 2011. . This article by Kenneth M. Holland presents information about the treatment of Chinese immigrants in Canada and in the United States.

The author discusses the dramatic shift in attitude toward Chinese immigrants from the 1860s, where cheap Chinese workers were needed to build the Canadian Pacific Railroad, to the efforts to exclude Chinese from North America and back to the present where Canadian government tries to attract immigrants to boost the economy and satisfy needs in the labor market. The author states that the first negative shift was caused by the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railroads, which resulted in a considerably drop in demand for cheap Chinese labors.

Chinese immigrants became unemployed and began to compete with Canadian workers. This had the effect that public opinion shifted strongly against the presence of the Chinese workers. In his opinion, the second shift was caused by changes in attitudes toward race after the Second World War. He argues that the different type of immigrants from China in the two centuries is another reason for the shift. The first immigrants from China were largely uneducated, single and male. Those arriving in the last decades were mostly well educated professionals with many employable skills.

He describes the Chinese as a model minority, as a minority ethnic group whose members achieve a higher degree of success than the population average. Li, Peter S. Economic Life. The Encyclopedia of Canadas Peoples. N. p. , n. d. Web. 19 Feb. 2011. . This article illustrates the economic life of Chinese immigrants in Canada from the 1880s on. It compares the loan of Chinese and white workers and shows how the profession of Chinese immigrants has changed during time. Everything is described extensively and is demonstrated with numbers. Mackenzie King, W. L. Report by W.

L. Mackenzie King, C. M. G. , Deputy Minister of Labour, Commissioner Appointed to Investigate into the Losses Sustained by the Chinesepopulation of Vancouver, B. C. on the Occasion of the Riots in That City in September, 1907. Rep. Ottawa: S. E. Dawson Printer to the Kings Most Excellent Majesty, 1908. Web. 22 Feb. 2011. This report is from June 11th 1908 and was composed by W. L. Mackenzie King, who was appointed as a commissioner to investigate the losses sustained by the Chinese businesses and population of Vancouver caused by the anti-Asian riots in 1907.

He described the sitting of the commission explicitly and named the people he has met during the process. He also described the amount and number of claims and determined how high the actual and resultant damage was after a careful examination. This report shows that even though Chinese people and businesses were discriminated they actually received a compensation for the damage they have sustained. Spencer, David R. Race and Revolution: Canadas Victorian Labor Press and Chinese Immigration Question. The Public 2005: 15-32. Javnost The Public. Web. 20 Feb. 2011. . David R.

Spencer describes the history of Labor Unions and Labor Press in Canada and how they dealt with Chinese workers. He argues that when it came to the question of Chinese immigrants and labor, the journalist and the worker spoke the same language. The author was surprised that journalists supported the same blatant racism and exclusion as unskilled and uneducated laborer. After an examination of trade union journals, he recognized that only working class solidarity was treated as a white initiative. He supported his conclusion with quotes from newspapers. Tan, Jin, and Patricia E. Roy.

The Chinese in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association, 1985. Print. Among other things, this book is about the era of exclusion and how the situation has changed for Chinese in Post-War Canada. Even though the Second World War has caused much suffering in China, it also helped Chinese in Canada to be more accepted. The Manchurian crisis and Japans attack on Pearl Harbor has created solidarity with the Chinese community in Canada. Wright, Richard. In a Strange Land: a Pictorial Record of the Chinese in Canada 1788-1923. Saskatoon, Sask. : Western Producer Prairie, 1988.

Print. Thomas Wright offers a wonderful overview of the history of Chinese immigration to Canada. It starts from the very beginning in 1-788 to 1923 focusing on both the social and economic aspects. This book shows what the profession of the earliest Chinese immigrants was and it helped me to understand how it has changed over time. I also learned that racism and discrimination was already present at that time and it was a big problem they had to struggle with. ””””””” [1] An Act respecting Chinese immigration of 1923; s. 6 [2] Enduring Hardship S. 74.

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