Peoples views and opinions have not changed since the 1600s and people believe only one way is right, communists and witches are both evil and therefore should be rid of, this is what miller is trying to portray about the world. No-one gets a chance to prove themselves or prove they are good and mean no harm. If you are a witch or a communist you are evil and its not acceptable therefore the only thing to do it get rid of them. This is shown in the play by the fact that lots of people in the village are being accused of witchery, and you die whether you have an excuse or proof that your not a witch, if you admit it you are saved but have to promise you want to come back to the lord but if you are truly faithful to the lord such as goody Proctor, you will not falsely admit to being a witch and therefore will be killed.
Miller uses dramatic devices in the play The Crucible, one of these devices is dramatic irony. This is when the audience knows something about a certain character but the other characters dont. They are like secrets no one knows apart from the characters involved. This creates tension as it seems as I everyone is hiding something. Miller uses this technique when the audience knows that Proctor and Abigail had an affair but the other characters are not aware. The audience then gets frustrated because it seems so obvious to them and they want to tell the characters whats going on. He also uses this when the characters dont know that Abigail is lying and the accusations are not real.
The audience think it is so simple to realise what is going on because they know there is no such thing a witches. And the audience knows that dramatic irony is a clear device used throughout the play. Exits and entrances are also used in the crucible; this is so the characters can have their private conversations like Abigail and Proctor. This creates confusion between the characters as they all have secrets, this then creates panic of others finding out and this panic can grow like Abigails panic grew for her being found out to be untruthful. This panic grew and grew until she was confessing random names/accusations. I saw goody Sibber with the devil!, I saw Goody Hawkins with the devil!, I saw Goody Bibber with the devil!, I saw Goody Booth with the devil The audience however would know that Abigail and her friends are making it up because there is no such thing as witches.
Another technique is the use of offstage action these are events that are not shown but they are mentioned. This is like the affair between Proctor and Abigail, this happens before the play begins. Also the audience doesnt see the dancing in the forest they only hear about it, they dont see it. This is the driving force behind the story; the audience are intrigued by what is going on. At the beginning of the play there is an overture, Miller begins the play by describing the setting and the scenery in detail, this is so the audience can see what it is like and will help them understand what is going on in the play.
A narrow window on the left the detail is important in linking the beginning with the rest of the play, as later on in the play, Betty uses the window, previously described to attempt to jump out of, screaming mama, and this shows hysteria in the play, it is obvious to the audience that introducing themes of witchcraft will cause hysteria. Uncle, themes of witchcraft are all about, all the rumours of witchcraft could have calmed down if Abigail hadnt said Betty had fainted, which is a blatant lie because she didnt know Ruth had apparently fainted as well. We did dance uncle, a bad mistake by Abigail, letting Parris know he was right he was right and therefore giving him more to suspect about witchcraft, and when you leapt out of the bush so suddenly, Betty was frightened and then she fainted.