2008 Summer Olympics Essay

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Published by 2008 by Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilm, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. IM-1826 CONTENTS Introduction Chapter 1. Introduction to Sports, Sportscasters, and Sportscasting Chapter 2. The Historical Development of Sports and Sportscasting Chapter 3.

The Economics of Sports, Sportscasters, and Sportscasting Chapter 4. Audiences for Sports and Sportscasting Chapter 5. The Role of Media in Sports and Sportscasting Chapter 6. Sociocultural Perspectives on Sports and Sportscasting Chapter 7. Practicum on Sportscasting Chapter 8. The Future of Sportscasters/Sportscasting Suggestions for Teaching Sportscasting Syllabus Critical Dates Student Profile Invitation for Sportscaster Speaker 5 7 13 19 25 33 41 55 61 65 67 69 73 75 Introduction Conceived as a supplement to Sportscasters/Sportscasting: Principles and Practices, this collection of exercises adds to the pedagogical mix.

Following the outline of a broad approach to understanding the topic”which includes the history, economics, audience, media, sociology, practicality, and future concerns of sports and sportscasting, it has this general outline: Chapter l. Introduction to the study of sportscasters and sportscasting Chapter 2. The historical development of sports and sportscasting Chapter 3. The economics of sports, sportscasters, and sportscasting (sports advertisers and advertising, sport tourism, sports marketing and management, the sports-media complex, sportscasters earnings, and sports sponsorship) Chapter 4.

Audiences for sports and sportscasting (U. S. audiences, international audiences, and special events) Chapter 5. The role of the media in sports and sportscasting (print media, broadcasting, and beyond, sportscasters”the Jockocracy issue, sportscasters as celebrities, and sportscaster profiles) Chapter 6. Sociocultural perspectives on sports and sportscasting (pervasiveness and salience of sports, role modeling/heroes, and issues”racial and gender consideration) Chapter 7. Practicum on sportscasting Chapter 8.

Future concerns and considerations about sports and sportscasting Designed for teachers and students, as well as anyone interested in the topic, the Exercises in Sportscasting includes a range of ap5 6 EXERCISES IN SPORTSCASTING proaches. The idea here is that participants in this process will want to learn as much as they can about the subject. As you will see, each chapter offers several ways to enhance the learning process. Some chapters encourage discussions of topics with family and friends and/or in the classroom, and most are meant to get you both thinking and talking about sportscasting-related issues.

There also are a number of bibliographic lists, encouraging further research on various topics, along with an approach to reporting on your reading that encourages critical thinking. Exercise 1. 4 is a Fill in the blanks, with the answers on the next page, as is Exercise 2. 3 Sport history firsts, and the essays in Exercise 2. 4 have suggested inclusions for answers. If you are interested in doing survey scholarship, there are two examples here: Exercise 4. 5 offers directions on how to get information on audiences for the Olympic Games, along with a sample and coding forms, and Exercise 5.

8 gives you a good background for interviewing sportscasters. In the hope that you use soft drinks, as suggested, you should enjoy Exercise 5. 6, The Brent Musburger Drinking Game” another way to monitor sportscasterspeak. There actually are a number of fun exercises here, as you will see. In terms of the practicum, you are asked to consider the field of sports journalism, examine sports cliches, construct a resume, analyze your voice, and actually practice sportscasting. As in anything else, the more you are willing to try these various activities, the more it will help you in the long run. This is, after all, only your beginning.

After the exercises is a separate section focusing on the way this course has been taught in the past. It includes the following: 1. Syllabus 2. Critical Dates 3. Student profile 4. A suggested invitation for a sportscaster speaker Designed for teachers, this section is suggestive only, and is open to input”as is, in fact, this whole project. Your responses are encouraged, and I wish you well in your analysis of and/or career in sportscasting. Chapter 1 Introduction to Sports, Sportscasters, and Sportscasting Exercise 1. 1: Your Definition/Description of Sportscasting We all have our own experiences with the subject of sportscasting.

Tell about yours, including your interest in the topic. At some point, give your own definition and/or description of sportscasting. In addition, what has been your personal experience with sportscasting and sportscasters? Have you met any sportscasters personally? Who are your favorites? Who are your least favorite(s)? Think about why, and share your thoughts. Exercise 1. 2: Globalization of Sports (book review) From the bibliography that follows, choose a book and critique it, including the following information: 1. The book: Full name of the title, author(s) name, when and where published and by whom, number of pages and illustrations.

2. Author(s): Who she or he is”profession, background, experience, and other publications. 3. Frame of reference: The writers point of view, or bias. Do you think she or he is qualified to write about this subject? Is the book based on personal experience? 4. Thesis: What is the main point here? Why do you think this book was written? Read the preface and the book jacket, if applicable. Give a brief description of the book in terms of its thesis, and give your opinion on how well it is supported. 7 8 EXERCISES IN SPORTSCASTING 5. Evidence: What kinds of arguments does the author use, and how successfully? Do you think the facts are valid?

Are the conclusions under- or overstated, and how do they stand up? 6. Contribution to knowledge: What does this book add to both your education and that of others who might read it? Who might like to read this book? 7. Your evaluation of the book: Was it well written? Well organized? Would you read more books by this author? 8. Overall personal reaction: Was reading this book and writing this book report a worthwhile experience for you? Did you discuss this book with anyone? Bibliography on Globalization Allison, Lincoln (2006). The global politics of sport: The role of global institutions in sport. Oxford, UK: Routledge.

Amis, John (2005). Global sport sponsorship. Oxford, UK: Berg Publishing. Andrews, David L. (2006). Sport-commerce-culture: Essays on sport in late capitalist America. New York: Peter Lang. Baimer, A. 2001. Sport, nationalism, and globalization: European and North American perspectives. Albany, NY: SUNY. Chandler, Joan M. 1988. Television and national sport: The U. S. and Britain. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Cronin, Mike and David Mayall (Eds. ) (1998). Sporting nationalisms. Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis, Inc. Eitzen, D. Stanley (Ed. ) (2004). Sport in contemporary society: An anthology, 7th ed.

Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers. Foer, Franklin. 2004. How soccer explains the world: An unlikely theory of globalization. New York: Harper Perennial. Gems, Gerald R. (2006). The athletic crusade: Sport and American cultural imperialism. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Houlihan, Barrie. 1994. Sport and international politics. NY: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Ingham, Alan G. and John W. Loy (eds. ) 1993. Sport in social development: Traditions, transitions, and transformations. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Maguire, Joseph. 1999. Global sport: Identities, societies, civilizations. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Majumdar, Boria and Fan Hong (Eds. ) (2006). Modern sport the global obsession. Oxford, UK: Routledge. Miller, Toby, Geoffrey Lawrence, Jim McKay, and David Rowe (2001). Globalization and sport: Playing the world. London: Sage. Roche, Maurice (2001). Mega-events and modernity: Olympics and expos in the growth of global culture. London: Routledge. Instructors Manual 9 Sandvoss, Cornel. 2003. A game of two halves: Football fandom, television and globalisation. London: Routledge. Szymanski, Stefan and Andrew Zimbalist. (2005). National pastime: How Americans play baseball and the rest of the world plays soccer.

Brookings Institution Press. Tomlinson, Alan and Christopher Young (Eds. ) (2006). National identity and global sports events. Albany: State University of New York Press. Van Bottenburg, Maarten and Beverley Jackson (2001). Global games. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. Wenner, Lawrence A. (Ed. ) (1998). MediaSport. New York: Routledge. Westerbeek, Han and Aaron Smith (2003). Sport business in the global marketplace. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Whannel, Garry (1992). Fields in vision: TV sport and cultural transformation. London: Routledge. Wilson, John. 1994.

Playing by the rules: Sport, society, and the state. Detroit, MI: Wayne State UP. Exercise 1. 3: Sportscasting Firsts Lou Schwartz has put together a list of Sportscasting Firsts, 1920Present, available at http://www. americansporscasteronline. com, from American Sportscasters Online. Choose one of these events to research further, and feel free to add more to the list. Sept. 6, 1920 First Radio Broadcast of a Prizefight -Jack Dempsey versus Billy Miske WWJ Nov. 25, 1920 First Radio Play-by-Play Broadcast of a Collegiate Football Game Texas University versus Mechanical College of Texas WTAW Aug.

5, 1921 First Radio Broadcast of a Baseball Game-Pittsburgh Pirates versus Philadelphia Phillies Harold Arlin on KDKA Aug. 6, 1921 First Radio Broadcast of a Tennis Match Australia versus Great Britian, Davis Cup Harold Arlin on KDKA Oct. 5, 1921 First Radio Broadcast of a World Series- New York Yankees versus New York Giants Sandy Hunt and Tommy Cowan on WJZ Oct. 7, 1922 First Radio Chain Broadcast- WJZ and WGY transmitted a World Series game from the field Grantland Rice and Graham McNamee 10 EXERCISES IN SPORTSCASTING Nov. 24, 1923 First Radio Broadcast of the Annual Army Navy football game Graham McNamee Jan.

1, 1927 First Coast-to-Coast Radio Program Univ. of Alabama versus Stanford originating from Pasadena, California, broadcast from the Rose Bowl NBC network May 17, 1939 First Televised Sports Event Columbia versus Princeton baseball Bill Stern on NBC Aug. 26, 1939 First Television Broadcast of a Pro Baseball Game Cincinnati Reds versus Brooklyn Dodgers Red Barber on W2XBS Oct. 22, 1939 First Television Broadcast of a Pro Football Game-Brooklyn Dodgers versus Philadelphia Eagles W2XBS Feb. 25, 1940 First Television Broadcast of a Hockey GameNew York Rangers versus Montreal Canadiens -W2XBS Feb.

28, 1940 First Televsion Broadcast of a Basketball Game Fordham versus U. of Pittsburgh W2XBS Sept. 30, 1947 First Televised World Series-New York Yankees versus Brooklyn Dodgers aired on three stations: WABD, WCBS, WNBT -Bob Edge, Bob Stanton and Bill Slater Oct. 3, 1951 First Coast-to-Coast Television Broadcast of a Baseball Game-NY Giants versus Brooklyn Dodgers, Game 3 of NL playoffs. Giants win on Bobby Thomsons homerun known as the Shot Heard Round the World. Aug. 26, 1955 First Color Television broadcast Davis Cup match between Australia and the U. S.

NBC July 23, 1962 First Satellite Telecast via Telstar Communications included portion of Chicago Cubs versus Philadelphia Phillies from Wrigley Field Jack Brickhouse Jan. 15, 1967 First Television Broadcast of a Football Championship- Green Bay Packers versus Kansas City Chiefs Jack Buck Nov. 8, 1972 First Sports Telecast by HBO New York Rangers versus Vancouver Canucks from Madison Square Garden reaches HBOs 365 subscribers in Wilkes Barre, Pa. Marty Glickman Instructors Manual 11 Aug. 16, 1976 First Pro Football Game Outside the United States- St.

Louis Cardinals versus San Diego Chargers in Japan- Jack Buck Aug. 3, 1993 First Woman to do Television Play-by-Play of a Baseball Game -Colorado Rockies versus Cincinnati Reds Gayle Gardner on KNGN-TV in Denver Exercise 1. 4: Fill in the Blanks 1. The evolution of sportscasting has gone from sports reporting for information to in terms of its profitability. 2. Sportscasting is a $ industry. 3. Television executives and advertisers are primarily interested in sportscasters who can .

4. Super Bowl hype helps draw audiences of (number) viewers with advertising costing $ per minute.at ABC is credited with helping that network become 5. known for its sports, introducing shows like Wide World of Sports in 1967 and Monday Night Football in 1970. 6. Women sportscasters, although few in number, include: , , and . 7. According to Red Barber, was the first genuine pioneer in radio sports announcing. 8. In the 1960s, the annual number of network hours of sports programming was 787; in the 1970s, 1,340; and now it is . in advertising for 9. The major networks sell about $ sports. 10. Leading sportscasters currently earn salaries of -figure incomes. 11.

Sporting events created for television, such as celebrity tennis or billiards, The Skins Games, battles of network superstars, and shows like them are called . 12. ABC paid $ for rights to the 1984 Los Angeles Olymfor the 1988 Calgary Olympics, and NBC paid pics, $ $ for the 2006 Torino Olympics and 2008 Beijing Olympics. 13. Americans spend about % of our gross national product (GNP) on sports.

12 EXERCISES IN SPORTSCASTING 14. Sports marketing statistics show corporate sponsorship costs of $ for endorsements from sports figures, and about on event sponsorship and participation. $ 15. My personal favorite sportscaster is: .

Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Infotainment Multibillion dollar industry Draw and sustain audiences 140+ million viewers, with advertising costing $2 million per thirty seconds Roone Arledge Mary Carillo, Gayle Gardner, Robin Roberts, Lesley Visser, etc. Major J. Andrew White 24/7 ABC $1. 33 billion, CBS $1. 43 billion, NBC $472 million, ESPN $1. 16 billion and ESPN2 $219 million, Fox $1. 18 billion, and TNT $221 million. Seven Trashsports ABC”$225 million 1984; $309 million 1988; NBC”$1. 5 billion for 2006 and 2008 One (1) percent $900 million for endorsements, $7.

7 billion for sponsorships (students choice) Chapter 2 The Historical Development of Sports and Sportscasting Exercise 2. 1: Oral Histories on Sports, Sportscasters, and Sportscasting Probably the best way for you to understand and appreciate the history of sports and sportscasting is by talking to people who have experience with the past. Let me suggest that you conduct interviews with two persons”preferably one male and one female, preferably separately, preferably both born before or during World War II about their early memories with sports, sportscasters, and sportscasting.

Use your own knowledge about the history, economics, politics, content trends, and sociocultural implications of radio and television in your interviews. Prompt your interviewees to remember some of their favorite early programs, performers, even advertisers. Write up a summary of your findings, including detailed descriptions on when and where the interviews were performed, how long they lasted, whether you tape-recorded responses and/or wrote them down, whether or not those responses are reported verbatim, and overall how you felt about the survey procedure.

Also, provide detailed descriptions about the persons you interviewed, especially demographically. This method has proven to be a fascinating way to learn history, and old-timers really enjoy the process. Be sure to thank them for sharing their memories! Exercise 2. 2: Hype in Sports History Often, we might wonder about what is hyped in sports history, and what might be ignored. As a sports scholar, you might consider the 13 14 EXERCISES IN SPORTSCASTING following approach to sports media criticism of television and/or film: 1.

Who are the actors in this episode or series, and what roles do they play? 2. Who made the program or movie: production company, producer, director, writer, director of cinematography, and so on? Have I seen other works by these people? Is it pertinent to know and mention them? 3. Do I like this episode or movie? Why? Why not? 4. Have I been fair with this episode or movie after only one viewing, or should I see it a second time to see what I might have missed? 5. What biases might I have toward the episode or movies star(s), director, and/or subject matter? 6.

Have I been as objective as possible? Have I used examples to support my views? Have I been prejudiced by my attitude toward the episode or movies theme or plot? Have I described it accurately? Exercise 2. 3: Sports History Firsts Fill in the blanks. 1. The first successful sports broadcast in the United States: 2. In baseball, this broadcast took place during its 53rd season: . 3. Describe the first World Series sportscast: ________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 4.

Jack Graney, the first ex-athlete to occupy the broadcast booth, became known as: __________________________________. 5. The first Olympic Games broadcast for the American public were: ____________________________________________. 6. Davis Cup, the first tennis match, had reportage on this date: _________________________________________________. 7. The first broadcast of a college football game was: __________. 8. Radio covered the first boxing match between whom: _______. Instructors Manual 15 9. The first live sporting event on television was: _____________.

10. Regarding the print media, what was the first sport magazine to debut in the 1820s: __________________________________. 11. The newspaper that had the first distinct sports section: ______. 12. Name the first daily newspaper totally devoted to sports, with regional sections: ___________________________________. 13. HBOs first regional sportscast: ________________________. 14. ESPN, the first twenty-four-hour all-sports cable network, began: _____________________________________________. 15. Ted Turners Goodwill Games first began: ________________. Answers 1.

April 11, 1921, when the Pittsburgh Posts sports editor, Florent Gibson, did the play-by-play over station KDKA, describing the no-decision fight between Johnny Ray and Johnny Dundee at Pittsburghs Motor Square Garden. 2. August 5, 1921, broadcast by Harold Arlin”Pittsburgh Pirates defeating the Philadelphia Phillies 8-5. 3. Thomas Cowan, sitting in a New York studio, recreated for the radio audience over stations WJZ and WBZ the 1921 World Series on October 5, as the New York Giants defeated the New York Yankees 5-3. Grantland Rice did the play-by-play. 4. The Voice of the Indians, 1932. 5.

1932 radio reports from Lake Placid for the winter games, Los Angeles for the summer games. Ted Husing provided summaries on WABC in New York. 6. August, 1921 over KDKA. 7. November 5, 1921, with Harold Arlin of KDKA covering Pittsburgh versus West Virginia; he yelled so hard at one touchdown that he knocked the station off the air. 8. Over WJY in 1921, the world heavyweight championship prize fight between Jack Dempsey and George Carpentier of France. 9. The second game of a baseball double-header between Columbia and Princeton, covered by Bill Stern out of New Yorks Baker Field on May 17, 1939.

10. William Trotter Porters Spirit of the Times. 11. William Randolph Hearsts New York Journal, 1895. 12. Frank DeFords The National, which debuted January, 1990. 16 EXERCISES IN SPORTSCASTING 13. 1972 hockey game between the New York Rangers and Vancouver Canucks. 14. September, 1979. 15. 1986. Exercise 2. 4: Essays 1. Describe the broad trends that best depict qualifications of what makes and have made the best sportscasters over the years. 2. Trace the developments from sports journalism to sports broadcasting. 3.

Discuss sportscasters themselves: as sponsors, celebrities/stars, as fans favorites, as former athletes (jockocracy), and as newscasters. 4. Outline some of the distinctions of the symbiosis between media and sport. Suggested Essay Answers 1. In the early days, voice was the most distinguishing characteristic. Review the Waldo Abbott 1941 quotation about phraseology, diction, rules, and regulations, and review some early sports journalists. The second phase of sportscasting concentrated more on knowledge of sport, and began the practice known as jockocracy.

Currently, it appears that knowledge of television is what is critical. Consider Marty Glickmans suggestion that succinctness, self-discipline and awareness of the action are the criteria. Still today the demographics of sportscasters remain pretty much within the purview of white males, aged thirty to fifty. It is found that local/regional sportscasters differ greatly from national network ones, the former being more involved personally with the teams. 2. Bruce Garrison shows how sports reporting is becoming more professional”list some examples.

We are thought to be in the age of realism”what Karmer (1987) calls the double whammy of electronic media and tabloid journalism, such that the rules are being rewritten. Print was revolutionized by the introduction of USA Today” especially graphics, statistics, and wide-ranging sports coverage. But so far no newspaper has caught on; even though The National was well done, sports fans today mostly depend on television and the Internet for their coverage. Television itself has revolutionized sports Instructors Manual 17 coverage, from ABC in the 1970s to the introduction of ESPN and other 24/7 sports channels.

We have moved from game stories centered on quotes from players and coaches and postgame trips to the locker room to instant messaging and reality monitoring. It becomes sobering to realize how we are moving from being told about sports to choosing what stories we want to follow; in other words, we are increasingly becoming more active in the process. 3. Cite some examples of sportscasters as sponsors, and then consider the issue of how some of them become bigger than the events they are covering. Who are homers? Who are former athletes? Who are newsmakers? Include considerations of race, gender, homophobia, and the like.

4. What is real relative to sportscasting? What differences are there between how reportage is received from print media, radio or television, the Internet, iPods, and other technologies? Discuss various production techniques, such as slo-mo replays, time-lapse shots, telestrators, wireless microphones, cameras attached to items like pucks, and how they might determine how a story is delivered. And consider how editing and videotaping have revolutionized not only what we see but also when and how we see it”remote controls, Tivos, and general zipping and zapping of ads and programs.

The potential for great sports viewing, and for learning about new sports and other countries sports, is outstanding”but will we settle for the same old/same old? Will we ask more from our sports, and from our sportscasters? Chapter 3 The Economics of Sports, Sportscasters, and Sportscasting Exercise 3. 1: Sports Tourism As one of the fastest-growing niche markets in the more than $500 billion tourism industry, sports tourism encourages us to participate directly, such as on ski trips, at golf or tennis camps, on theme cruises, or as spectators for events such as the Olympic Games, Super Bowl, World Cup, and the like.

Tell about your own experience in sports tourism. You might want to refer to some of these books: Brabazon, Tara (2006). Playing on the periphery: Sport, identity and memory. London: Routledge. Gibson, Heather (2006). Sport tourism. New York: Routledge. Higham, James (2004). Sport tourism destinations: Issues, opportunities and analysis. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. Hinch, Thomas and James E. S. Higham (2004). Sport tourism development. Clevedon, UK: Channel View Books. Hudson, Simon (Ed. ) (2002). Sport and adventure tourism. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press. Ritchie, Brent W. and Daryl Adair (Eds. ) (2004).

Sport tourism: Interrelationships, impacts and issues. Oxon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Robinson, Tom (2004). Sports tourism: An introduction. Boston, MA: Thomson Learning. Robinson, Tom, Sean Gammon, and Ian Jones (2003). Sports tourism: An Introduction. London: Continuum. Rowe, David and Geoffrey Laurence (Eds. ) (2000). Tourism, leisure, sport, and critical perspectives. Cambridge University Press. Ryan, Chris (2003). Recreational tourism: Demand and impacts. Celevedon, UK: Channel View Publications. 19 20 EXERCISES IN SPORTSCASTING Scarrott, Martin (Ed. ) (1999). Sport, leisure and tourism information sources: A guide for researchers.

Butterworth-Heinemann. Standeven, Joy and Paul DeKnop (1999). Sport tourism. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Turco, Douglas Michele, Roger S. Riley, Kamilla Swart (2002). Sport tourism. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology. Van Der Wagen, Lynn (2002). Event management: For tourism, cultural, business, and sporting events. Prentice-Hall. Weed, Mike and Chris Bull (2003). Sports tourism: Participants, policy and providers. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. Exercise 3. 2: The Economics of Sports (book review) From the bibliography, choose a book and critique it, including the following information: 1.

The book: full name of the title, author(s) name, when and where published and by whom, number of pages and illustrations. 2. Author(s): who she or he is”profession, background, experience, and other publications. 3. Frame of reference: the writers point of view, or bias. Do you think he or she is qualified to write about this subject? Is the book based on personal experience? 4. Thesis: what is the main point here? Why do you think this book was written? Read the preface and the book jacket, if applicable. Give a brief description of the book in terms of its thesis, and give your opinion on how well it is supported.

5. Evidence: what kinds of arguments does the author use, and how successfully? Do you think the facts are valid? Are the conclusions under- or overstated, and how do they stand up? 6. Contribution to knowledge: what does this book add to both your education and that of others who might read it? Who might like to read this book? 7. Your evaluation of the book: was it well written? Well organized? Would you read more books by this author? 8. Overall personal reaction: was reading this book and writing this book report a worthwhile experience for you? Did you discuss this book with anyone? Instructors Manual.

Bibliography on General Sports Economics 21 Andrews, David L. (Ed. ) (2001). Michael Jordon, Inc: Corporate sport, media culture, and late modern America. Albany: State University of NY Press. Andrews, David L. (2006). Sport-commerce-culture: Essays on sport in late capitalist America. New York: Peter Lang. Aris, Stephen (1990). Sportsbiz: Inside the sports business. London: Hutchinson. Fizel, John, Elizabeth Gustafson, and Lawrence Hadley (Eds. ) (1999). Sports economics: Current research. Westport, CT: Praeger. Goff, Brian L. and Robert D. Tollison (eds. ) (1990). Sportometrics. College Station, TX: Texas A&M UP.

Gorman, Jerry and Kirk Calhoun (1994). The name of the game: The business of sports. NY: John Wiley & Sons. Graham, Peter J. (Ed. ) (1994). Sport business: Operational and theoretical aspects. Madison, WI: WCB Brown & Benchmark. Hofmann, Dale and Martin J. Greenberg (1989). Sports$biz: An irreverent look at Big Business in pro sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Klatell, David A. and Norman Marcus (1988). Sports for sale: Television, money, and the fans. New York: Oxford. Rosentraub, Mark S. (1997). Major League losers: The real cost of sports and whos paying for it. New York: Basic Books. Sheehan, Richard G.( 1996).

Keeping score: The economics of Big-Time sports. South Bend, IN: Diamond Communication. Staudohar, Paul D. and James A. Mangan (Eds. ) (1991). The business of professional sports. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Walsh, Adrian (2006). Ethics, money & sport: This sporting mammon. New York: Routledge. Weiss, Ann E. (1993). Money games: The business of sports. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Bibliography on Law/Legal Issues Berry, Robert C. and Glenn M. Wong (1993). Law and business of the sports industries: Common issues in amateur and professional sports. Westport, CT: Praeger. Champion, Walter T. , Jr.(1993).

Sports law in a nutshell. St. Paul, MN: West Pub. Cotton, Doyice J. and T. Jesse Wilde (1997). Sport law for sport managers. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. Cozzillio, Michael J. and Mark S. Levinstein (1997). Sports law: Cases and materials. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press. Dougherty, Neil J. (1994). Sport, physical activity, and the law. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Fotiades, John M. (1989). Youre the judge: How to understand sports, torts & courts. Worcester, MA: Edgeworth and North Books. 22 EXERCISES IN SPORTSCASTING Greenberg, Martin J. (1993). Sports law practice. Charlottesville, VA: Michie Co.

Greenfield, Steve and Guy Osborn (Eds. ) (2000). Law and sport in Contemporary society. London: Frank Cass. Hladczuk, John (Comp. ) (1991). Sports law and legislation: An annotated bibliography. New York: Greenwood Press. Jarvis, Robert M. and Phyllis Coleman (1999). Sports law: Cases and materials. St. Paul, MN: West Group. Jones, Michael E. (1999). Sports law. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Lowe, Stephen R. (1995). The kid on the sandlot: Congress and professional sports, 1910-1922. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. OLeary, John (Ed. ) (2001). Drugs and doping in sport: Socio-legal perspectives.

London: Cavendish. Quirk, Charles (Ed. ) (1996). Sports and the law: Major legal cases. New York: Garland. Shropshire, Kenneth L. (1990). Agents of opportunity: Sports agents and corruption in collegiate sports. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Tokarz, Karen (1986). Women, sports, and the law: A comprehensive research guide to sex discrimination in sports. Buffalo, NY: W. S. Hein. Weiler, Paul C. (2000). Leveling the playing field: How the law can makes Sports better for the fans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP. Weiler, Paul C. and Gary R. Roberts (1993). Cases, materials and problems on sports and the law.

St. Paul, MN: West Pub. Wong, Glenn M. (1994). Essentials of amateur sports law. Westport, CT: Praeger. Wong, Glenn M. and T. Jesse Wilde (1994). The sport lawyers guide to legal periodicals: An annotated bibliography. Buffalo, NY: W. S. Hein. Yasser, Raymond L. (1985) Torts and sports: Legal liability in professional and amateur athletics. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Yasser, Ray, James R. McCurdy, and C. Peter Goplerud (1990). Sports law: Cases and materials. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson. Bibliography on Sports Marketing/Management Brooks, Christine M. (1994). Sports marketing: Competitive business strategies for sports.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Cuneen, Jacquelyn and M. Joy Sidwell (1994). Sport management Field experiences. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology. DeSensi, Joy T. and Danny Rosenberg (1996). Ethics in sports management. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology. Graham, Stedman, Joe Jeff Goldblatt, and Lisa Delphy Neirotti (2001). The ultimate guide to sports marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill. Howard, Dennis R. and John L. Crampton (1995). Financing sport. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology. Jones, Ian (2003). Research methods for sports studies. New York: Routledge.

Instructors Manual 23 Masteralexis, Lida Pike, Carol A. Barr, and Mary A. Hums (Eds. ) (2004). Principles and practices of sports management. 2nd ed. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen. McDonald, Mark A. and George R. Milne (1999). Cases in sports marketing. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. Miller, Lorik (1997). Sport business management. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen. Milne, George R. and Mark A. McDonald (1999). Sports management: Managing the exchange process. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. Mullin, Bernard J. , Stephen Hardy, and William A. Sutton (1993). Sport marketing. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

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